FACTS A B O U T G E R M A N Y p U d 2 Foreign policy · Society · Research · Economy · Culture d a t e 0 e 8 1 d iti o n
Facts about Germany
2 | 3 F A C T S A B O U T G E R M A N Y CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Federal Republic Crests & Symbols Demographics Geography & Climate Parliament & Parties Political System Federal Government Famous Germans THE STATE & POLITICS New Tasks Federal State Active Politics Broad Participation Political Berlin Vibrant Culture of Remembrance FOREIGN POLICY Civil Policy-Shaping Power Committed to Peace and Security Advocate of European Integration Protection of Human Rights Open Network Partner Sustainable Development BUSINESS & INNOVATION A Strong Hub Global Player Lead Markets and Innovative Products Sustainable Economy Digital Revolution A Valued Trading Partner Attractive Labour Market ENVIRONMENT & CLIMATE A Pioneer in Climate Policy Innovative Force behind Climate Cooperation Energy Transition – A Project for Generations Greentech – A Sector with a Future Sustainable Energies Essential Diversity 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 26 30 32 34 36 38 42 46 50 54 56 58 62 66 70 72 74 76 78 82 84 88 90 92 EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE Vibrant Hub of Knowledge Dynamic Academic Landscape Ambitious Cutting-edge Research Networking Academia Research and Academic Relations Policy Excellent Research Attractive School System SOCIETY Enriching Diversity Structuring Immigration Diverse Living Arrangements Committed Civil Society Strong Welfare State Leisure Time and Travel Freedom of Religious Worship CULTURE & THE MEDIA Vibrant Nation of Culture Innovative Creative Industry Intercultural Dialogue Cosmopolitan Positions Rapid Change in the Media Exciting World Heritage Sites Attractive Language WAY OF LIFE Land of Diversity Urban Quality of Life Sustainable Tourism Sporting Challenges Attractions in Berlin Leisurely Enjoyment P I C T U R E C R E D I T S I N D E X I M P R I N T 94 98 102 106 108 110 112 114 118 122 126 128 130 132 134 138 140 142 146 150 152 154 158 160 164 168 170 172 173 176
FOREWORD What characterises politics, business, so- cussed in a time of social and political ciety, academia, and culture in Germany? “Facts change. The new 2018 edition focusses in about Germany” invites readers to get to particular on contemporary issues – histor- know the modern and cosmopolitan coun- ical and institutional references take a try. The handbook offers exhaustive basic backseat. In order to make the texts as use- information and numerous points of orien- ful as pos sible, they include up-to-date in- tation – all specially designed with inter- formation and statistics. national readers in mind. In nine chapters, “Facts” conveys a basic includes broad digital offerings, exploring understanding of German society and shows in more depth online the topics outlined in which models and solutions are being dis- the print edition. The print edition of “Facts about Germany” Get to know Germany – with the cross-media “Facts about Germany”
4 | 5 F A C T S A B O U T G E R M A N Y FACTS FAMILY Insight: Informative overviews spotlight current developments in the topic explored in each chapter. Topic: Fact-based texts offer an in-depth and expanded consideration of the key aspects. Panorama: Extensive info graphics complement the chapters, adding an exciting visual component. HANDBOOK In its nine chapters the updated edition of the handbook “Facts about Germany” offers a whole host of different angles on present-day Ger- many. Each of the chapters is structured in such a way that an “Insight” first provides the most import ant basic information on the topic in question by way of introduction. Subsequently, the various aspects of the topic are explored in depth. Moreover, each chapter contains numer- ous references to further sources of informa- tion as well as cross-media services. → Information in 14 languages → Nine chapters → Various information levels → Tips for further information → Key players in each topic → Print-to-Web links via augmented reality applications M O R E A B O U T G E R M A N Y Anyone wanting to find out more about polit- ics and business, about culture, science, and society can rely on the Deutschland.de web- site. Here you will find the stories behind the stories in the news and access to contacts who can provide the right information on topics AUSSENPOLITIK38 | 39Zivile Gestaltungsmacht ∙ Engagiert für Frieden und Sicherheit ∙ Anwalt europäischer Integration ∙ Schutz von Menschenrechten ∙ Offener Netzwerkpartner ∙ Nachhaltige EntwicklungAUSSENPOLITIKAußenpolitik: das Video zum Thema → tued.net/de/vid2VIDEO AR-APPEINBLICKZIVILE GESTALTUNGSMACHTDeutschland ist in der internationalen Politik intensiv und vielfältig vernetzt. Das Land un-terhält diplomatische Beziehungen zu fast 200 Staaten und ist Mitglied in allen wichtigen mul-tilateralen Organisationen und informellen in-ternationalen Koordinierungsgruppen wie der „Gruppe der Sieben“ (G7) und der „Gruppe der Zwanzig“ (G20). Außenminister ist seit 2018 Heiko Maas (SPD). Im Auswär tigen Dienst, des-sen Zentrale sich in Berlin befindet, arbeiten rund 11.652 Beschäftigte. Insgesamt unterhält Deutschland 227 Auslandsvertretungen.Das vorrangige Ziel der deutschen Außenpo-litik ist der Erhalt von Frieden und Sicherheit in der Welt. Zu den Grundkoordinaten gehört die umfassende Integration in die Strukturen der multilateralen Zusammenarbeit. Konkret bedeutet dies: eine enge Partnerschaft mit Frankreich in der Europäischen Union (EU), die feste Verankerung in der Wertegemein-schaft des transatlantischen Bündnisses mit den USA, das Eintreten für das Existenzrecht Israels, die aktive und engagierte Mitwirkung in den Vereinten Nationen (UN) und im Eu-roparat sowie die Stärkung der europäischen Sicherheitsarchitektur im Rahmen der OSZE.Gemeinsam mit seinen Partnern setzt sich Deutschland weltweit für Frieden, Sicherheit, Demokratie und Menschenrechte ein. Der von Deutschland vertretene erweiterte Sicher-heitsbegriff umfasst neben Fragen der Krisen-prävention, Abrüstung und Rüstungskontrolle nachhaltige wirtschaftliche, ökologische und soziale Aspekte. Dazu gehören eine Globali-sierung mit Chancen für alle, grenz-überschreitender Umwelt- und Klimaschutz, der Dialog zwischen den Kulturen sowie Offen-heit gegenüber Gästen und Einwanderern. Seit dem Ende des Ost-West-Konflikts in den frü-hen 1990er-Jahren haben sich für die deutsche Die deutsche Außenpolitik ist fest eingebunden in die multilaterale ZusammenarbeitKULTUR & MEDIEN148 | 149Deutscmlands größter Newsroom: die Zentralredaktion der Deutscmen Presse-)gentur (dpa) in BerlinPro Erscheinungstag werden 1-,1 Millionen Tageszeitungen und fünf Millionen Wochen- und Sonntagszeitungen verkauft (201-). Die führenden Blätter, die überregionalen Tages-zeitungen „Süddeutsche Zeitung“, „Frankfur-ter Allgemeine Zeitung“, „Die Welt“, „Die Zeit“, „taz“ und „Handelsblatt“, zeichnen sich durch investigative Recherche, Analyse, Hinter-grund und umfassende Kommentierung aus. Das Nachrichtenmagazin „Spiegel“/„Spiegel Anzeigenumsätzen in schwerem Fahrwasser. Über 100 Zeitungen haben als Antwort auf die Umsonst-Kultur im Netz inzwischen Bezahl-schranken eingeführt. Die Verlagslandschaft ist in Bewegung – auch weil inzwischen fast 800.000 täglich verkaufte Zeitungsexemplare als E-Paper digital vertrieben werden und die Zahlen der Digital- Abos stetig zunehmen.Die Digitalisierung der Medienwelt, das Inter-net, die dynamische Zunahme mobiler End-geräte und der Siegeszug der sozialen Medien haben das Mediennutzungsverhalten signi-fikant verändert. -2,4 Millionen Deutsche über 14 Jahre (89,8 Prozent) sind heute online. Mehr als 50 Millionen Menschen nutzen das Internet täglich. Durchschnittlich verbrachte jeder Nut-zer täglich rund 1-5 Minuten online (gerechnet auf die Gesamtbevölkerung: 149 Minuten); mehr als jeder Zweite surft inzwischen mobil. Zudem ist gut die Hälfte aller Internetnutzer Mitglied einer privaten Community. Die digitale Revolution hat einen neuen Begriff von Öffent-lichkeit hervorgebracht; die sozialen Medien und die Bloggosphäre sind der Spiegel einer of-fenen und dialogischen Gesellschaft, in der jeder meinungsbildend am Diskurs teilnehmen kann. Ob die interaktiven Versammlungsorte im Netz zugleich das Fundament für einen zukunfts-fähigen digitalen Journalismus bilden, bleibt abzuwarten. Im Bemühen gegen Fake News und gezielte Desinformation nehmen Journalisten aller Sparten ihre journalistische Verantwor-tung wahr. Online“ und das Boulevardblatt „Bild“ gelten als die meistzitierten Medien.Zugleich befindet sich die Branche in einem tiefgreifenden Strukturwandel. Die Tageszei-tungen büßen seit 15 Jahren regelmäßig durch-schnittlich 1,5 bis 2 Prozent ihrer bezahlten gedruckten Auflage ein. Sie erreichen immer seltener jüngere Leserschichten und befinden sich bei weiterhin rückläufigen Auflagen und Deutsche Welle Die Deutscme Welle (DW) ist der )uslandsrundfunk Deutscmlands und Mitglied der )RD ()rbeitsgemeinscmaft der öffentlicm- recmtlicmen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutscmland). Die DW sendet in 30 Spracmen, sie bietet Fern-semen (DW-TV), Radio, Internet sowie Medienentwicklung im Rammen der DW )kademie. Kostenfreie Nacmricmten in vier Spracmen bietet der German News Service für Interessierte und Medien.→ dw.comGLOBALDigitaler Alltag Die mobile Internetnutzung und die Verwendung mobiler Endgeräte steigen in Deutscmland deutlicm an. Mit der zunemmenden mobilen Da-tennutzung wacmsen die tecmnologi-scmen )nforderungen an die Netzin-frastruktur. Studien zeigen aucm: Die Zaml der Internetnutzer steigt seit geraumer Zeit nur nocm geringfügig.DIAGRAMMVielfältiger Zugang: So gehen die Deutschen ins Internet44 %Computer, PC66 %Smartpmone/ Handy38 %Tablet-PC57 %Laptop)RD/ZDF-Onlinestudie 2016Tägliche MediennutzungFernsemen174 Min.Radio160 Min.Internet149 Min.Zeitung17 Min.)RD-ZDF-Onlinestudie 2017/Studienreime „Medien und imr Publikum“Rasante Entwicklung: Internetnutzer in Deutschland in Millionen1997200020102006201762,44938,618,34,1)RD/ZDF-Onlinestudie 2017BILDUNG & WISSEN110 | 111EXZELLENTE FORSCHUNGPANORAMAMission Rosetta Die Mission der europäischen Weltraumorgani-sation ESA erforschte die Entstehungsgeschichte unseres Sonnensystems. Das DLR hatte großen Anteil beim Bau der Landeeinheit Philae und be-treibt das Kontrollzentrum, das die bisher nie gewagte Landung auf einem Kometen betreute.Rosetta-SondeZehn Jahre war die Sonde unterwegs, um Philae auf dem Kometen Tschurju-mow-Gerassimenko abzusetzen.Philae LanderPhilae setzte als erster Apparat weich auf einem Kometen auf.Philae LanderNeumayer-Station IIIIm ewigen Eis der Antarktis betreibt das Alfred-Wegener- Institut die Forschungsstation Neumayer III, in der ganzjährig Wissenschaftler leben und arbeiten. Sie steht auf Stelzen und wächst mit der Schneedecke mit.6 Kräne9 WindenGemeinschaftsdeckmit Messe und BibliothekForschungsschiff SonneDie Sonne ist das jüngste Schiff der deutschen Forschungsflotte und seit Ende 2014 vor allem im Pazifik und im Indischen Ozean den Geheimnissen der Tiefsee auf der Spur. Das High tech-Schiff gilt als eines der modernsten Forschungsschiffe der Welt.Lagerdeckmit 20 Wissen-schaftler-KabinenArbeitsdeck8 Labors auf 600 m2Kabinendeckmit 33 Crew-KabinenUnterwasserfahrzeugEs ist ferngesteuert und mit Videokamera und Greifarmen ausgerüstet.WasserschöpfkranzDas Gerät nimmt Was-serproben und misst Temperatur und Tiefe. MulticorerEr kann gleichzeitig viele kleine Proben vom Meeres-boden ausstechen.Masse: 2.300 TonnenGröße: 68 x 24 mNutzfläche: 4.890 m2 über vier EtagenLabor/Büro: 12 RäumeUnterkünfte: 15 Räume, 40 BettenGewicht: 100 kgDimension: 1 x 1 x 0,8 mLandung: 12. November 2014Länge: 116 mGeschwindigkeit: 12,5 knSeezeit (max.): 52 TagePersonal (max.): 40 PersonenEinsatzgebiete: Indik, Pazifik399Hochschulen und Universitäten81Max-Planck- Institute weltweit2,8 Mio.Studierende an Hochschulen72Fraunhofer- Institute92,2 Mrd. € Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung93Forschungseinrichtungen der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft586.030 Forscherinnen und Forscher18Forschungszentren der Helmholtz- Gemeinschaft
facts-about-germany.de: Modern design meets concentrated information. DIGITAL Pride of place in the extensive multimedia digital offerings goes to the website facts- about-germany.de. What is more, the re- sponsive design enables optimum use on mo- bile end devices. The “Facts” range also in- cludes e-paper editions and e-reader services. The facts-about-germany.de website won the German Design Council’s German Design Award 2018 in the category “Excellent Com- munications Design – Online Publications”. → Information in 14 languages → Videos and interactive graphics → Additional chapter “German History” → Extensive background information and in-depth key words on each chapter V I D E O A R A P P Additional digital material 1. Download the free app “AR Kiosk” from your app store onto your mobile device. “AR Kiosk” is available from iTunes and Google Play. 2. Start the app and hold your smartphone or tablet over the image with the icon Video & AR app (pages 23, 39, 59, 79, 95, 115, 135, 155). Additional digital information is available via these pages. 3. As soon as the app has recognised the image, the bonus material will automatically open. such as studying, working, or travelling. deutschland.de The website also casts a regional glance at the facebook.com/deutschland.de topics and people linking Germany and its twitter.com/en_germany partners around the world – in contributions instagram.com/deutschland_de for ten world regions. And feel free to inter- act with Germany on social media channels.
6 | 7 A T A G L A N C E AT A GLANCE Federal Republic ∙ Crests & Symbols ∙ Demographics ∙ Geography & Climate ∙ Parliament & Parties ∙ Political System ∙ Federal Government ∙ Famous Germans FEDERAL REPUBLIC Germany is a federation. The federation and states were founded: Brandenburg, Meck- the 16 Länder (states) each have areas of re- lenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony- sponsibility of their own. Responsibility for Anhalt, and Thuringia. With 17.9 million internal security, schools, universities, cul- inhabitants, North Rhine-Westphalia is the ture, and municipal administration lies with most populous state, while its 70,540 square the states. The administrative authorities of kilometres make Bavaria the largest in the states enforce not only their own laws, terms of surface area; with 4,012 inhabit- but also those of the federation. Through ants per square kilometre Berlin, the capital, their representatives in the Bundesrat the is the most densely populated. There is one governments of the states are directly in- peculiarity: the three city states. Their territory volved in the federation’s legislation. is restricted in each case to a major city, namely Berlin, Bremen/Bremerhaven, and Federalism in Germany is more than just a Hamburg. With 420 square kilometres and system of federal states; it represents the 679,000 inhabitants, Bremen is the smallest country’s decentral cultural and economic state. Econom ically speaking, Baden-Wurttem- structure and is deeply rooted in tradition. berg is one of the strongest regions in Europe. Over and above their political function, the After the Second World War, Saarland was states are also a reflection of pronounced a partly sovereign state and a French protector- regional identities. The strong position of ate, and was only integrated in the former the states was established in the Basic Law in territory of the Federal Republic as the tenth 1949; on reunification in 1990, five new state on 1 January 1957.
The 16 federal states Kiel S C H L E S W I G - H O L S T E I N M E C K L E N B U R G - W E S T P O M E R A N I A H A M B U R G Schwerin B R E M E N L O W E R S A X O N Y B R A N D E N B U R G B E R L I N Hanover Magdeburg Potsdam N O R T H R H I N E - W E S T P H A L I A S A X O N Y - A N H A LT Düsseldorf Erfurt Dresden T H U R I N G I A S A X O N Y H E S S E Wiesbaden R H I N E L A N D - P A L A T I N A T E Mainz S A A R L A N D Saarbrücken Stuttgart B A V A R I A B A D E N - W U R T T E M B E R G Munich State capital
8 | 9 A T A G L A N C E Federal Eagle Basic Law The Federal Eagle is the German state symbol that is the richest in tradition. The Federal President, the Bundesrat, the Federal Constitutional Court, and the Bundestag Passed in 1949 in Bonn, the Basic Law was initially intended to be provisional. After reunification in 1990 the version was then adopted as the permanent constitution. The use differently styled eagles. The eagles that 146 Articles of the Basic Law supersede appear on coins and the national strip of German sports associations also differ in terms of design. all other German legal norms and define the basic systems and values of the state. Flag National Holiday 3 October The Basic Law states that the colours As the Day of German Unity, in the of the federal flag shall be black, red, and gold. In 1949, this followed on from the flag of the first German republic of 1919. The Nazis Unification Treaty of 1990 3 October was declared a national holiday in Germany. The Day of German Unity is the only national had abolished the latter and replaced holiday to be determined by federal law. it with the swastika. Currency € Domain .de +49 The euro has been the legal tender in Germany The domain “.de” is the most widespread coun- since 1 January 2002. It replaced the deutschmark, which had been in use since 1948. The European Central Bank (ECB) is headquartered in the German financial centre Frankfurt am Main. try-specific domain in Germany, and the most popular worldwide. Using the international dialling code +49, 99.9 percent of households can be reached via landline or mobile telephone.
National Anthem The German national anthem consists only of the third stanza of the Deutschlandlied by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1841). The melody was written by Joseph Haydn in 1796-97. Ei – nig – keit und Recht und Frei – heit Da – nach lasst uns al – le stre – ben für das deut – sche Va – ter – land! brü – der – lich mit Herz und Hand! Ei – nig – keit und Recht und Frei – heit sind des Glü – ckes Un – ter – pfand. Blüh im Glan – ze die – ses Glü – ckes, blü – he, deut – sches Va – ter – land!
10 | 11 A T A G L A N C E DEMOGRAPHICS With regard to demographic developments there are three clear trends in Germany: a low birth rate, rising life expectancy, and an aging society. With 1.36 million babies born, Germany registered its highest birth rate in 1964, since when the country has been at a low as far as births are concerned. In 2016 however the number of new babies born rose for the fifth year in a row; with a birth rate of 1.59 children per woman, Germany moved into the European statistical midfield. None- theless, for 35 years the generation of chil- dren has been about a third smaller than that of its parents – nowadays there are twice as many 50-year-olds as there are newborn babies. At the same time, life expectancy is rising. For men it is on average 78 years, for women 83 years. The demographic changes and the serious impact they have on economic development and the welfare systems are being cushioned by immigration. Just over 22 percent of the people living in Germany (18.6 million) have a migration background. More than half of them have a German passport. Members of four national minorities are recognised as having long-established roots and enjoy special protection and support: the Danish minority (50,000) and the Friesian ethnic group (60,000) in north Germany, the Lusatian Sorbs (60,000) along the German- Polish border, and the German Sinti and Roma (70,000). L I F E E X P E C T A N C Y 83 years 78 years / Women Men I M M I G R A N T S I N 2 0 1 6 1,865,000 E M I G R A N T S I N 2 0 1 6 1,365,000 H O U S E H O L D S 40.8 m
P O P U L A T I O N 82.6 m G E N D E R D I S T R I B U T I O N 40.74 m Women 41.83 m Men A G E S T R U C T U R E 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : e c r u o S 700 600 500 400 Persons in thousands 300 Women 200 100 0 0 100 200 Age in years 300 Men 400 500 600 700 Persons in thousands
12 | 13 A T A G L A N C E GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE Germany lies at the heart of Europe. It shares its borders with nine other nations. No other European country has more neighbours. In the north, Germany has access to the North and Baltic Seas. In the south it borders on the Alps. At 2,962 metres the Zugspitze in Bav- aria is its highest peak. At 3.54 metres below sea level the lowest point on land is near Neuendorf-Sachsenbande in Schleswig-Hol- stein. Measuring 357,340 square kilometres, Germany is the fourth largest country in the European Union (EU) after France, Spain, and Sweden. Forests cover almost a third of its total surface area. Lakes, rivers, and other inland waters account for more than two percent. The Rhine is the longest river. In the southwest it marks the border between Ger- many and France, further north Bonn, Co- logne, and Düsseldorf all lie on its banks. The Elbe, the second-longest river, links Dresden, Magdeburg, and Hamburg and flows into the North Sea. Germany enjoys a moderate climate. In July, the mean maximum temperature is 21.8 de- grees Celsius, the minimum 12.3 degrees. In January, the mean maximum is 2.1 degrees, the minimum –2.8 degrees. The highest tem- perature since records began was recorded on 5 July 2015 in Kitzingen am Main, namely 40.3 degrees Celsius. L O C A T I O N Central Europe S U R F A C E A R E A 357,340 km2 C A P I T A L Berlin 891.70 km2
H O U R S O F S U N 1,595 R A I N 850 l/m2 C O A S T L I N E 2,442 km L O N G E S T R I V E R Rhine 865 km in Germany F O R E S T E D A R E A H I G H E S T M O U N T A I N 114,191 km2 Zugspitze 2,962 m
14 | 15 A T A G L A N C E PARLIAMENT & PARTIES The German Bundestag is elected every four years by free, secret, and direct ballot by citizens aged 18 and over who are eligible to vote. The Bundestag is the German parliament. Half of the at least 598 seats in the Bundestag are allo- cated through the election of candidates put up by the parties on state lists (second votes), the other half through the election of persons in 299 constituencies (first votes). The German electoral system makes it difficult for any one party to form a government on its own – mean- ing that a coalition tends to be the rule. In order to prevent complications in the formation of majorities by the presence of small and very small parties, a threshold known as “the five percent hurdle” excludes parties that poll less than that being represented in the Bundestag. Seven parties with 709 members of parliament are represented in the 19th Bundestag: CDU, CSU, SPD, AfD, FDP, The Left party, and Alliance 90/The Greens. Ever since the first Bundestag election in 1949, the CDU and its sister party CSU, which only stands in Bavaria, have formed a single parliamentary party. Alternative for Germany (AfD) entered parliament for the first time in this legislative period; the FDP is once again represented in the Bundestag after a four- year break. The current Federal Government is made up of a coalition of CDU/CSU and SPD, with Dr. Angela Merkel (CDU) as the Federal Chancellor, Olaf Scholz (SPD) as Deputy Chan- cellor and Heiko Maas (SPD) as Federal Foreign Minister. AfD, FDP, The Left party and the Greens form the parliamentary opposition. Parties Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) 427,173 members 2017 election result: 26.8 percent Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 463,723 members 2017 election result: 20.5 percent Alternative for Germany (AfD) 29,000 members 2017 election result: 12.6 percent Free Democratic Party (FDP) 63,050 members 2017 election result: 10.7 percent The Left party 62,182 members 2017 election result: 9.2 percent Alliance 90 / The Greens 65,257 members 2017 election result: 8.9 percent Christian Social Union (CSU) 141,000 members 2017 election result: 6.2 percent
Bundestag The Bundestag has at least 598 members. In addition, there tend to be what are known as “overhang and equalising” seats. The 19th Bundestag as elected in 2017 has 709 members. Independent 2 seats 709 seats AfD 92 seats FDP 80 seats The Left party 69 seats SPD 153 seats CDU 200 seats Greens 67 seats CSU 46 seats Bundesrat The Bundesrat is one of five permanent constitutional bodies. It represents the Länder, the federal states. The Bundesrat is made up of 69 representatives of the state governments. Each state has at least three, the most populous state up to six votes. Baden-Wurttemberg 6 4 Thuringia Bavaria 6 Berlin 4 Brandenburg 4 Bremen 3 Hamburg 3 4 Schleswig-Holstein 4 Saxony-Anhalt 4 Saxony 3 Saarland 4 Rhineland-Palatinate Hessen 5 3 Mecklenburg-West Pomerania 6 North Rhine-Westphalia 6 Lower Saxony
16 | 17 A T A G L A N C E POLITICAL SYSTEM In terms of protocol, the Federal President is Germany’s most senior representative. The President of the Bundestag is, in terms of pro- tocol, the second most senior. The proxy for the Federal President is the President of the Bundesrat – an office held on an annual basis by the premier of the one of the federal states. The office with the greatest political power is that of the Federal Chancellor. The President of the Federal Constitutional Court is likewise one of the country’s high representatives. Dr. Frank-Walter Steinmeier, b. 1956, Federal President since March 2017 Dr. Angela Merkel, b. 1954, CDU, Federal Chancellor since November 2005 The people elect All German citizens aged 18 and over are eligible to vote. They elect MPs in a general, direct, free, and equal election by secret ballot. elect State parliaments As a rule the legislature of the state parliaments is five years. The state constitutions regulate their powers and how they are organised. send delegates to elect Dr. Wolfgang Schäuble, b. 1942, CDU, Bundestag President since 2017 Dr. Andreas Vosskuhle, b. 1963, President of the Federal Constitutional Court State governments The state governments are elected in each case by the state parliaments in a secret vote, and can also be brought down by them. send delegates to
proposes The Federal Chancellor The Chancellor is elected by the Bundestag in a secret vote. The Chancellor determines policy guidelines and is head of the Cabinet. The Federal Government The government comprises the Federal Chancellor and the federal ministers. Each minister runs his or her ministry independently. The Bundestag elects The parliament is elected for four years and has 598 members. In addition there are so-called overhang and equalising seats. The Bundestag is responsible for legislation and monitoring government. elects sends delegates to The Federal Assembly The Federal President appoints appoints The Federal Assembly convenes solely for the purpose of electing the Federal President, whom it elects in a secret vote for a five-year term of office. The Bundesrat The chamber of states is made up of 69 members delegated by the state governments. In many fields laws require the approval of the Bundesrat. elects elects elects The head of state’s duties are primarily of a representative nature and he represents the Federal Republic in international matters. He appoints the Chancellor and the federal ministers and issues laws. Federal Constitutional Court The Court has 16 judges. Half of them are elected with a two-thirds majority by the Bundestag and Bundesrat.
18 | 19 A T A G L A N C E Federal Ministries FEDERAL GOVERNMENT The Federal Chancellor and the federal min- isters form the Federal Government, the cab- inet. Alongside the Chancellor’s power to set policy guidelines, within these general par- ameters ministers on principle run their ministries independently; the collective principle also applies, whereby the Federal Government settles disputes by majority decision. The federal cabinet consists of 14 ministers and the Head of the Federal Chancellery. The federal ministries are the highest federal authorities for the relevant departments. The Basic Law assigns the Chancellor a special role: “The Federal Chan- cellor shall determine and be responsible for the general guidelines of policy.” The Federal Chancellery and the federal ministries em- ploy around 18,000 staff members. The Fed- eral Foreign Office and the Federal Ministry of Defence are among the ministries with large payrolls. Eight ministries are based in Berlin, six in the Federal City of Bonn. All the ministries maintain offices in both cities. Federal Ministry of Finance → bundesfinanzministerium.de Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community → bmi.bund.de Federal Foreign Office → diplo.de Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy → bmwi.de Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection → bmjv.de Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs → bmas.de Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture → bmel.de Federal Ministry of Defence → bmvg.de Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth → bmfsfj.de Federal Ministry of Health → bundesgesundheitsministerium.de Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure → bmvi.de Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety → bmu.de Federal Ministry of Education and Research → bmbf.de Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development → bmz.de
Federal Presidents & Federal Chancellors Federal Presidents Theodor Heuss (FDP) 1949–1959 Heinrich Luebke (CDU) 1959–1969 Gustav Heinemann (SPD) 1969–1974 Walter Scheel (FDP) 1974–1979 Karl Carstens (CDU) 1979–1984 Richard v. Weizsaecker (CDU) 1984–1994 Roman Herzog (CDU) 1994–1999 1949 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Federal Chancellors Konrad Adenauer (CDU) 1949–1963 Ludwig Erhard (CDU) 1963–1966 Kurt Georg Kiesinger (CDU) 1966–1969 Willy Brandt (SPD) 1969–1974 Helmut Schmidt (SPD) 1974–1982 Helmut Kohl (CDU) 1982–1998 Johannes Rau (SPD) 1999–2004 2005 Gerhard Schroeder (SPD) 1998–2005 Horst Koehler (CDU) 2004–2010 2010 Christian Wulff (CDU) 2010–2012 2015 Joachim Gauck (no party) 2012–2017 Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD) since 2017 Angela Merkel (CDU) since 2005
20 | 21 A T A G L A N C E FAMOUS GERMANS Celebrated classics, courageous visionaries, astute thinkers: Germany’s history is rich in people who achieved extraordinary things. Many of them are famous far beyond the country’s borders. The Goethe-Institut has been indirectly spreading the name of the best-known of all Germans, Johann Wolf- gang von Goethe, throughout the world since 1951. Wagner fans from all over the world congregate every year at the Bayreuth Festi- val to pay homage to “Der Ring des Nibelun- gen”. Names such as Humboldt and Einstein, Röntgen and Planck, Benz and Otto estab- lished Germany’s reputation as a country of researchers and engineers. They were fol- lowed by Stefan Hell, Nobel Prize Laureate for Chemistry, and astronaut Alexander Gerst. In earlier days, women faced difficulties lead- ing similarly high-profile lives. Yet there are nonetheless many famous women, such as Clara Schumann, Maria Sibylla Merian, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Rosa Luxemburg, Anna Seghers, Sophie Scholl, and the great choreograph Pina Bausch. Today, writer and poet Herta Müller and researcher Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard are just two examples of women who have achieved outstanding work. All these women are regarded as role models for a modern society which enables men and women alike to participate and en- joy equal opportunities – even though this still requires a concerted effort. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Poet, playwright, scholar: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749– 1832) is regarded as an all-round genius and the classic in German literature. Friedrich von Schiller A fighter for freedom: Friedrich von Schiller (1759–1805) is regarded as one of the world’s great playwrights (“The Robbers”, “Mary Stuart”, “Don Carlos”) and as an important essayist. Johann Sebastian Bach Virtuoso of Baroque church music: Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) perfected the strict “art of the fugue” and composed more than 200 cantatas and oratorios.
Marlene Dietrich Ludwig van Beethoven The film diva: Marlene Dietrich (1901–1992) was one of only a few German actresses to become an icon Pioneer of Romanticism: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), focussing clearly on form, brought a (“The Blue Angel”). Born in Berlin, she took completely new measure of personal expression and US citizenship in 1939. sensitivity to bear in music (“9th Symphony”). Thomas Mann A master of the novel and novella: Albrecht Dürer German Renaissance artist: Thomas Mann (1875–1955) is one of the most Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) from Nuremberg is important authors of 20th-century world literature. one of the most important and versatile figures in the In 1929 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his family saga “Buddenbrooks”. history of art. He revolutionised woodcarving and copperplate engraving techniques. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Willy Brandt Discoverer of X-rays: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Politician and cosmopolitan: Willy Brandt (1913–1992) (1845–1923) discovered X-rays in 1895 in Würzburg. In 1901 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. Since then more than 80 leading German scientists as Federal Chancellor from 1969–1974 initiated a policy of detente; like no other he embodied the democratic and social changes of the time – in 1971 he have received a Nobel Prize. received the Nobel Peace Prize.
22 | 23 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S THE STATE & POLITICS New Tasks ∙ Federal State ∙ Active Politics ∙ Broad Participation ∙ Political Berlin ∙ Vibrant Culture of Remembrance I N S I G H T NEW TASKS Germany is a value-based, democratic, eco- for Germany, AfD) is represented in the Bun- nomically successful, and cosmopolitan coun- try. The polit ical landscape is diverse. Follow- ing the elections for the 19th German Bun- destag (2017) initially the CDU/CSU, which emerged from the elections as the largest par- ty, explored the option of a coalition govern- ment with the FDP and Alliance 90/The Greens. The talks failed. Subsequently the CDU/CSU and SPD formed a Grand Coalition in March 2018 after tough coalition talks and an SPD members’ vote. The previous legisla- tive period had already seen such an alliance of the two strongest forces in the German par- ty system. Of the 709 Members of Parliament, the coalition partners account for 399 seats (CDU/CSU 246, SPD 153). The oppos ition con- destag for the first time. Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel (CDU) has been head of gov- ernment since 2005 and is now in her fourth term. She is the first woman in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany to hold this office. Deputy Chancellor Olaf Scholz (Federal Minister of Finance) and Heiko Maas (Federal Foreign Minister) are important representa- tives of the SPD in the Cabinet. The Cabinet is made up of 14 ministers and the Head of the Federal Chancellery. The Coalition Agreement entitled “A New Awakening for Europe, a New Dynamic for Germany, a New Cohesion for Our Country” serves as the basis of the govern- ment parties’ joint work. sists of the AfD (92 seats), FDP (80), The Left party (69) and Alliance 90/The Greens (67), plus two independent MPs. The right-wing popu- list Alternative für Deutschland (Alternative In 2018, the German economy will enter its ninth year of consecutive growth, employment is at a record high, and government revenue and national insurance contributions have
V I D E O A R A P P The State & Politics: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid1 The Reichstag Building in Berlin has been the seat of the German Bundestag since 1999. Sir Norman Foster designed the glass dome
24 | 25 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S risen. New debt assumed by central government has been reduced to zero. The Energy Transition is being driven forward – renewable energies are on the way to becoming the decisive technol ogy for generating electricity. Together, the people in Germany have made the gradual fusion of east and west Germany, a major issue since Reunification in 1990, into a success story. The “Solidarity Pact II”, for which 156.5 billion euros are set aside, will remain in force until 2019. All tax-paying citizens in the east and west con tinue to play a joint role in the “Aufbau Ost” project to redevelop the east through the “solidarity surcharge”, a supple- mentary contribution which today stands at 5.5 percent of personal income tax. That said, new tasks await. As in other indus- trialised countries, demographic change is re- garded as a challenge. The topics of immigra- tion and integration are also high on the agenda. The result of the Bundestag elections is an expression of the uncertainty and dis- satisfaction felt by many people, and as such the Federal Government aims to, as stated in the Coalition Agreement, “safeguard that which is good, but at the same time demon- strate the courage to engage in political de- bate and bring about renewal and change”. I N T E R N E T The German Bundestag Elections, Members of Parliament, parliamentary groups → bundestag.de The Bundesrat Composition, duties, sessions → bundesrat.de The Federal President State visits, appointments, duties → bundespraesident.de Chaired by Federal Chancellor Merkel, the federal cabinet meets every Wednesday at 9.30 a.m. in the Federal Chancellery
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS Political parties Germany is a party-based democracy. Seven parties are represented in the 19th German Bundestag – CDU, CSU, SPD, AfD, FDP, The Left party, and Alliance 90/The Greens. There are also around 25 small parties, whose influ- ence is limited on account of the five-percent hurdle. Some of them are represented, however, in various federal state parliaments. The Social Social movements Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) is the Since the 1970s many people in Germany have party with the most members (463,700). The been actively involved in environmental groups, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) has around citizens’ movements, and non-government or- 427,000 members, its sister party the Christian ganisations. With over half a million members, Social Union (CSU) in Bavaria 141,000 (2017). → bundeswahlleiter.de Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND) is the largest environmental association. → bund.net Trade unions The German Trade Union Confederation (DGB) Public opinion research embraces eight individual trade unions and has Numerous opinion research institutes regularly 6 million members. With 2.3 million members conduct research into the political climate in IG Metall, the metal workers’ union, which Germany. Institutes such as infratest dimap, among other things represents workers in the Allensbach, Forsa, Emnid, and Forschungs- automotive sector, is the single largest union. gruppe Wahlen have a particularly strong pres- The trade unions’ ideas have weight and influ- ence in the run-up to elections, but also with ence in political debates. → dgb.de Industrial federations As industry’s umbrella organisation, the Feder- ation of German Industries (BDI) unites 35 sector federations and speaks on behalf of around 100,000 companies. → bdi.de up-to-date weekly barometers that indicate the general mood. D I G I T A L P L U S More information about all the topics in the chapter – annotated link lists, articles, documents; plus more in- depth information about terms such as Bundesrat, Federal Government, federal state, Bundestag, Federal Constitutional Court, Basic Law, electoral system. → tued.net/en/dig1
26 | 27 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S T O P I C FEDERAL STATE Germany is a parliamentary and federal dem- ocracy. The German Bundestag, the con- stitutional body most present in the public eye, is directly elected by citizens eligible to vote every four years. The most important tasks of the Bundestag are legislation and to oversee the government’s work. The Bun- destag elects the Federal Chancellor for the legislative period by secret ballot. Within the Federal Government the Chancellor has the authority to lay down guidelines, in other words determines binding broad policy lines. The Federal Chancellor appoints the federal ministers, and from among them a Deputy Chancellor. In actual fact, however, it is the parties that make up the govern- L I S T ∙ Largest federal state: North Rhine- Westphalia (17.9 million inhabitants) ∙ Highest individual federal ministry budget: Labour and Social Affairs (137.6 billion euros) ∙ Largest Bundestag committee: Eco- nomic Affairs and Energy (49 members) ∙ Highest turnout: 1972 election to the Bundestag (91.1 percent) ∙ Largest parl. party: CDU/CSU (246 MPs) ment that decide which persons will head the ministries they were allocated in the co- alition negotiations. If a coalition collapses, the Chancellor can also fall prior to the end of the electoral term, as the Federal Govern- ment has the right to vote the head of gov- ernment out of office at any time. In such cases parliament must, however, name a suc- cessor at the same time in what is known as a “constructive vote of no confidence”. This means that there can be no period of time without an elected government in office. Coalition governments are the rule in Germany The system of personalised proportional representation is decisive with regard to the character of the parliament. This way, smaller parties are also represented in the Bundestag in proportion to their election results. For this reason, with one exception, the Federal Government has always been formed through an alliance of several par- ties that had competed against each other in the election; since the first Bundestag elec- tion in 1949 there have been 24 coalition governments. To avoid fragmentation in parliament and make forming a govern- ment easier, parties must poll at least five per cent of the votes cast (or three direct mandates) in order to be represented in the Bundestag (this rule is known as the five percent hurdle).
On the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin: around 8,000 people visit the parliamentary building every day Germany’s federal character is revealed in the large level of independence the 16 federal states enjoy, in particular with regard to the police, disaster control, the law, and culture. For historical reasons the cities of Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen are also federal states. The close links between the federal states and central government is unique, re- sulting in the state governments having nu- merous opportunities to play an active role in central government policy. This occurs primarily through the Bundesrat, the upper house, which is made up of members of the federal state governments and is likewise in Berlin. Densely populated federal states have greater representation in the Bundesrat than smaller ones. By being coalition partners in federal state governments, parties that at federal level are in opposition, or not even represented in the Bundestag, can thus potentially exert an influence on politics at federal level, as numerous federal acts and
28 | 29 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S decrees require the approval of the Bun- desrat. Since 2011 and 2014 the two smallest parties represented in the Bundestag, Alli- ance 90/The Greens and The Left party, have provided the Prime Minister in one federal state each (Baden-Wurttemberg and Thur- ingia respectively). there were two combinations of SPD and Greens, two of CDU and Greens, one of SPD and The Left party, two coalitions of The Left party, SPD, and Greens and one coali- tion each of CDU and FDP; of CDU, Greens, and FDP; of SPD, FDP, and Greens; and of SPD, CDU, and Greens. Because there is no uniform election date for the federal state parliaments and the le- gislature periods vary, parallel to the legisla- tive term in the Bundestag the balance of power in the Bundesrat can change several times. With the current constellation of the chamber of federal states, the Federal Gov- ernment has no safe majority in the Bun- desrat. There are no longer any distinct blocks demonstrating uniform voting be- haviour, as there is more diversity with re- gard to coalitions in the 16 federal states than ever before in the Federal Republic. Only in Bavaria can a single party, the CSU, rule without a coalition partner. Otherwise, in spring 2018, in addition to four state govern- ments made up of the CDU and SPD parties The Federal President is the most senior political person in the country In terms of protocol the Federal President holds the highest office. He is elected not by the people, but by a Federal Assembly convened specially for the purpose. Half of it is made up of the members of the Bundestag, the other half of members elected by the federal state parliaments in relation to the distribution of seats there. The Federal President holds office for five years and may be re-elected once. Dr. Frank-Walter Steinmeier has been Federal President since 2017. As an SPD politician he served as Federal Foreign Minister from 2005 until 2009 and from 2013 until 2017. Stein- meier is the 12th Federal President since 1949. Although the Federal President’s duties are M I L E S T O N E S 1949 On 23 May the Parliamentary Council, which is made up of representatives of the states in the Western Occupation Zones, rresolves the Basic Law in Bonn. The first Bundestag is elected on 14 August. 1953 On 17 June 1953 around one million people take to the streets in East Berlin and East Germany in protest at the political and economic conditions. The upris- ing is quashed by a massive mili- tary operation. 1961 In Berlin, the East German leader- ship seals off the crossings from east to west: with a wall and barbed wire. Anyone henceforth seen try- ing to escape is shot. The unity of Germany as a state seems unat- tainable for the foreseeable future.
primarily representational in nature, he can refuse to put his signature to legislation if he has doubts about it complying with the consti- tution. Previous incumbents have exerted the greatest influence through public speeches, which receive great attention. The Federal Presidents refrain from becoming involved in party politics, but do tackle current issues and from time to time urge the government, par- liament, and the population to take action. During the formation of a government follow- ing the 2017 Bundestag elections, which, for Germany, was an unusually protracted pro- cess, it was important to Steinmeier to avoid fresh elections. Without his intervention, it is unlikely the SPD would have entered into a Grand Coalition at this point in time. G L O B A L Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Elections of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) At the invita- tion of Germany, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) observed the election of the Bundestag on 24 September 2017. In their report, the OSCE experts certified that Germany conducted a fair elec- tion which was not influenced by ma- nipulations, such as by hackers. → osce.org The Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe: guardian of the Basic Law The Federal Constitutional Court in Karls- ruhe, which the population holds in very high esteem, exerts great influence. It is regarded as “the guardian of the Basic Law” and through its important decisions provides a binding interpretation of the constitutional text. In two panels it passes judgement on disputes between constitutional bodies about areas of jurisdiction, and can declare laws to be incompatible with the Basic Law. Any citi- zen can appeal to the Constitutional Court if he is of the opinion that a law violates his ba- sic rights. 1969 Willy Brandt is the first Chancellor not to be a member of the CDU party. The Ostpolitik of the coali- tion government made up of the SPD and FDP creates a framework for the reconciliation of Germany with its eastern neighbours. 1989-90 In East Germany, peaceful pro- tests lead to the regime being top- pled. On 9 November the border with the West is opened. After the first free elections on 18 March, East Germany accedes to the Fed- eral Republic on 3 October 1990. 1999 The Bundestag and the Federal Government are relocated to Ber- lin. The parliamentary buildings stand on both sides of the former course taken by the Wall. Bonn remains the seat of some minis- tries and federal authorities.
30 | 31 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S T O P I C ACTIVE POLITICS “A New Beginning for Europe. New dyna- mism for Germany. New cohesion for our country” is the title the Grand Coalition chose for its government programme until 2021. It seeks to champion strengthening the European Union as a guarantor for peace, security and prosperity. With its ob- jective of a balanced budget, which has been achieved since 2014, the Federal Govern- ment considers itself responsible for mone- tary stability, and wishes to be a role model for its partners in the Eurozone. At the same time, it has indicated a willingness to make a larger contribution to the EU budget. To- gether with France, the Federal Government wants to strengthen and reform the Euro- zone to enable the euro to better withstand global crises. N U M B E R 0 euros was what Germany’s federal budget deficit came to in 2017. While expendi- ture totalled 325.4 billion euros, revenue amounted to 330.4 billion euros. For the fourth year in succession, in 2017 central government assumed no new debt. This was thanks above all to higher tax revenues generated by the robust economy. → bundeshaushalt-info.de For Germany, it wants to ensure that every- one benefits from the good economic situ- ation. This should create greater social justice and reinforce people’s trust in the ability of politics to act effectively. The results of the 2017 general elections spelled strong losses for the major parties that had formed the last government. By contrast, the right-wing populaist AfD made large gains and entered the Bundestag as the largest opposition party. Despite the ongoing favourable economic conditions, many people are concerned about the fu- ture. Not least this led the Federal Govern- ment to conclude that it needed to foster so- cial cohesion in the country and overcome divisions. It has thus set out specifically to strengthen families, improve provisions for old age and unemployment, and promote education, innovations, and digitisation. One key element is to more carefully control immigration and improve the integration of migrants. The Basic Law assures politically persecuted persons a basic right to asylum. Germany will continue to help people in distress who have a right to asylum. At the same time, the Federal Government is in- tensifying its efforts to have people who have no prospect of being able to reside in Germany leave the country again. The Fed- eral Government hopes that the reform of the Common European Asylum System will be concluded by 2018.
The Bundestag in Berlin is the political stage. There are 709 members of the 19th German Bundestag Following on from successes In the prior legislative period, the Bundestag for the first time resolved a minimum wage for all sectors. In 2018, it was EUR 8.84 per hour of work and will continue to be re- viewed regularly.A quota for women in large stock corporations was introduced in 2016. As of the end of 2017 companies have been meeting the requirement that at least 30 percent of the members of a supervisory board must be women. At the end of 2017, women accounted for 25 percent of the supervisory board members of Germany’s 200 largest corporations. Advancing the Energy Transition, through which Germany has already increased its share of regener- ative energies significantly, as well as the expansion of the digital infrastructure are further focal points.
32 | 33 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S T O P I C BROAD PARTICIPATION The political parties are granted a major and privileged place in the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. Article 21 of the Basic Law states that “Political parties shall participate in the formation of the political will of the people.” This goes hand in hand with an obligation to uphold inner-party democracy: The chairperson, committees, and candidates must all be elected by secret ballot of grass roots dele- gates at party conferences. In order to strengthen this inner-party democracy, in the case of important decisions parties have in recent times polled their members di- rectly. The SPD members’ vote on the Coali- tion Agreement in 2018 was pivotal to the forming of a joint Federal Government with the CDU/CSU. At heart the parties are still expressions of specific strata of society, but at the same time they are losing coherence in this regard. CDU/CSU and SPD together have around one million party members – in relation to the 61.5 million eligible voters that is a share of 1.7 percent. There is also a downward trend in election turnout. Whereas in the 1970s and 1980s elections continually saw high and extremely high turnouts, (91.1 percent in 1972), in 2013 and 2017 the elections to the Bundestag only saw turnouts of 71.5 and 76.2 percent re- spectively. Young people often find being involved in local citizens’ groups and non-government organisations more appealing. Social media are also becoming increasingly important as platforms for a specific type of political articu- lation and action. Citizens also participate dir- ectly in political issues through democratic procedures such as referendums. Over the past few years, there have been more oppor- tunities for direct democracy at both federal state and municipal level, and citizens have made great use of these. D I A G R A M Downward trend: turnout in Bundestag elections (%) The voice of the people In Germany voting is on the basis of slightly modified personalised propor- tional representation. Every person eligible to vote has two votes. The first is for a party’s candidate in the con- stituency, the second for a state list of candidates put up by a particular party. The second votes are the basis of the number of seats in the Bundestag. 91.1 89.1 78.5 77.8 77.7 76.2 1949 1972 1983 1990 2005 2017 e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : e c r u o S
The instruments of direct democracy, such as referendums, come into play more frequently at the municipal level Age structure of those entitled to vote Turnout for referendums s m u d n e r e f e r , s r e c fi f o g n n r u t e r , i e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : s e c r u o S 20.7 % 70 and older 15.4 % 60–70 years 20 % 50–60 years 3.6 % 18–21 years 11.8 % 21–30 years 13.9 % 30–40 years 14.7 % 40–50 years Baden-Wurttemberg (2011) Berlin (2014) Hamburg (2010) Bavaria (2010) 48.3 % 46.1 % 39.3 % 37.7 %
34 | 35 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S P A N O R A M A POLITICAL BERLIN Bellevue Palace Built in the late 18th century, Bellevue Palace has been the official residence of Germany’s Federal President since 1994. It is located on the edge of Berlin’s Tiergarten district. Federal Chancellery The new Federal Chancellery went into service in 2001. The outside of the post-Modernist building is predominantly glazed. “Berlin“, a steel sculpture by Basque artist Eduardo Chillida, is situated in the “Ehrenhof” (courtyard of honour). 709 MPs make up the 19th German Bundestag 31 % of MPs in the Bundestag are women 61,500,000 Germans are eligible to vote in elections to the Bundestag 3,000,000 people visit the Bundestag in Berlin each year 21
Bellevue Palace Federal Chancellery German Bundestag Bundesrat Jakob Kaiser Building Paul Löbe Building Marie Elisabeth Lüders Building Berlin Mitte district e p r e 2 e r S R i v 6 3 7 5 1 St r a s se de s 17 . Jun i Tiergarten 4 German Bundestag The glass dome on the Reichstag building stands for transparency. The Reichstag building The German parliament sits in the modernised building dating from 1894. 14 ministers form the Cabinet 24 12 8 coalition governments Federal Presidents Federal Chancellors since 1949 since 1949 since 1949 31234567
36 | 37 T H E S T A T E & P O L I T I C S T O P I C VIBRANT CULTURE OF REMEMBRANCE Addressing war and tyranny, ideologically motivated crimes and political injustice in the 20th century, not to mention commemorating the victims of persecution, play an important role in the culture of remembrance in the Federal Republic of Germany. Preserving eye- witness reports by persons who actually ex- perienced the events is the key element in a culture of remembrance destined to make cer- tain that coming generations are conscious of the crimes committed by the Nazis. The nu- merous memorials to the various groups of victims all over Germany are also part of this vibrant culture of remembrance. In central Berlin, for example, the Memorial to the Mur- I N F O “Stolpersteine” In many German and European cities, “Stolpersteine” (stumbling stones) placed in the ground remind passers- by that Jewish citizens who were persecuted, murdered, deported, or driven away by the Nazis, once lived or worked in the buildings outside which the stones are placed. The ap- proximately 10 by 10-centimetre cube-shaped concrete blocks have a brass top with an inscription in memory of the victim bearing his or her name and biographical data. → stolpersteine.eu dered Jews of Europe is a memorial to the six million Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Memorials to war, resistance and dictatorship In November 2018 Germany commemorates the end of the First World War a century ago; 2019 is the 100th anniversary of the inaug- ural meeting of the Weimar Republic’s Na- tional Assembly, the first German democ- racy. In the major anniversary years 2014 and 2015 too, marking the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the First World War and the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, the overwhelming sentiment in the memor- ial services was one of gratitude. Gratitude for the Allies’ anti-Hitler co alition for liberating Germany in 1945, and for the opportunity to re-build the country and for its reunification in 1990. There was also gratitude to those who, as surviving victims of the Holocaust, bore witness to the crimes – and reached out their hand to a democratic Germany after the Second World War. Memories of the communist dictatorship during the Soviet Occupation Zone (1945– 1949) and the days of East Germany (1949– 1990) are also being kept alive for those gen- erations that never experienced the division of Germany and the East German system. The Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the Former
M A P Memorials in Germany 10 5 39 4 7 9 3 4 6 8 Memorials to the victims of Nazism 5 German Democratic Republic, the institu- tion where files are still being examined, sorted, and made accessible to those affected and academics, plays a major role in this. A permanent exhibition in the former head- quarters of the State Security Service (Stasi) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in Berlin’s Hohenschönhausen district pro- vides an insight into the means and methods the Stasi used to spy on, control, and intimi- date the population. In the “Bendlerblock” in the Mitte district of Berlin the German Resistance Memorial Cen- tre is devoted to the resistance to the Nazi dic- tatorship. It is located on the historical site of the failed coup attempted by the group headed by Count Stauffenberg on 20 July 1944. The Memorial Centre impressively documents how, between 1933 and 1945, individuals and groups took action against the dictatorship of the Third Reich and made use of what free- dom of action they had.
38 | 39 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y FOREIGN POLICY Civil Policy-Shaping Power ∙ Committed to Peace and Security ∙ Advocate of European Integration ∙ Protection of Human Rights ∙ Open Network Partner ∙ Sustainable Development I N S I G H T CIVIL POLICY-SHAPING POWER On the international stage, Germany enjoys Union (EU), firm roots in the community of a very broad network of close contacts. It values shaped by the transatlantic alliance maintains diplomatic relations with almost with the USA, support of the right of Israel 200 countries and is a member of all the im- to exist, active and committed involvement portant multilateral organisations and in- in the United Nations (UN) and the Council formal international coordination groups of Europe, as well as the strengthening of such as the “Group of Seven” (G7) and the the European secur ity structure through “Group of Twenty” (G20). Heiko Maas (SPD) the OSCE. has been Federal Foreign Minister since 2018. The Federal Foreign Office, which is Together with its partners, Germany pro- based in Berlin, has around 11,652 staff motes peace, security, democracy, and hu- members. In total, Germany maintains 227 man rights all over the world. Alongside missions abroad. crisis prevention, disarmament, and arms control, the broad notion of security pro- The primary objective of German foreign mulgated by Germany embraces sustainable policy is to ensure peace and security in the economic, ecological, and social aspects. world. The basic premises on which this These include a globalisation that offers op- rests include the nation’s full integration portunities for everyone, cross-border envir- into the structures of multilateral cooper- onmental and climate protection, dialogue ation. In concrete terms this means: close between cultures, and openness towards partnership with France in the European guests and immigrants.
V I D E O A R A P P Foreign policy: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid2 German foreign policy is firmly embedded in multilateral cooperation
40 | 41 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y Since the end of the East-West conflict, new In the age of globalisation and digitisation opportunities and challenges have emerged and against the backdrop of a fast-changing for German foreign policy. On the basis of world, alongside classical foreign policy new its multilateral relations, Germany has ac- fields are increasingly on the agenda, includ- cepted the increased responsibility it has ing, for example, “malign cyberoperations” been accorded since reunification in 1990. or attempts via propaganda to influence pub- Through its many efforts, Germany now- lic opinion. adays plays a role in the political resolution of conflicts, the maintenance of peacekeep- ing structures, and crisis prevention as part of UN-mandated peace missions. To further I N T E R N E T support the UN in crisis prevention, Germany has trebled its contribution in this area, as For- eign Minister Maas stated in a speech to the UN in spring 2018. Security requires more than military defence, and Germany is also increasing its efforts in humanitarian assistance and in foreign cultural policy. Germany has under- scored its commitment by its successful candidacy for a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council in 2019-20. Federal Foreign Office Appointments, people, issues, contacts → diplo.de European Union Portal of the community of states with information in 24 languages → europa.eu OSCE Permanent mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the OSCE → osze.diplo.de Federal Foreign Minister Maas and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini (right)
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS Diplomatic missions Germany maintains diplomatic relations with 195 countries and has a global presence with 227 missions, 153 of them embassies. Germany has permanent representatives at 12 international organisations. → diplo.de Multilateral organisations Foreign policy think tanks Germany assumes responsibility in multilateral Important foreign and security policy research organisations such as the United Nations (UN), institutes include the German Council on the European Union (EU), the North Atlantic Foreign Relations (DGAP), the German Institute Alliance (NATO), the Organization for Security of Global and Area Studies (GIGA), the Peace and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF), the European Council, the Organisation for Econom- Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy ic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), (IFSH), and German Institute for International the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the and Security Affairs (SWP). International Monetary Fund (IMF). Political foundations German Armed Forces The foundations closely associated with the Following an internal reform the German political parties CDU, CSU, SPD, German Armed Forces now has around 180,000 The Left party, Alliance 90/The Greens, and active soldiers, of which 21,000 are women. FDP have offices worldwide. With federal In 2018, a total of 3,700 members of the German funds, they promote dialogue and development Armed Forces were deployed to missions in in partner countries. 14 different crisis areas. → bundeswehr.de Experts in conflict prevention The Centre for International Peace Operations trains civilian specialists for missions in crisis regions and provides experts. → zif-berlin.org D I G I T A L P L U S More information about all the topics in the chapter – annotated link lists, articles, documents, speeches; plus more in-depth information about the European Union as well as short portraits of the multilat- eral organisations. → tued.net/en/dig2
42 | 43 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y T O P I C COMMITTED TO PEACE AND SECURITY Diplomacy, crisis prevention, and peaceful conflict resolution are the primary German the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) or the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- foreign policy instruments: Deploying civil zation (NATO). The deployment of German servants, judges, public prosecutors, police Armed Forces abroad is embedded in a broad- officers, reconstruction experts, and other er political approach with civilian elements civil officers is one strand of Germany’s com- such as political development-policy or so- prehensive security policy, as is the German cio-economic measures. The Federal Gov- Armed Forces’ participation in multinational ernment has developed guidelines for its in- peacekeeping missions. The defining feature ternational commitment in the context of of German foreign policy, close multilateral crises. Each deployment of armed forces is involvement, applies in particular to the de- subject to parliamentary mandate and con- ployment of military means. Crisis manage- trol. It requires approval by the majority of ment missions by the German Armed Forces the members of the Bundestag. The German always take place within the framework of Armed Forces are therefore also termed a the systems of collective security or defence parliamentary army. run by international organisations such as L I S T ∙ Largest German foreign mission: Moscow embassy, about 300 staff ∙ Largest parliamentary group in the German Bundestag: Parliamentary Group USA, 80 members of parliament ∙ Largest EU body in Germany: European Central Bank (ECB) in Frankfurt am Main, 3,380 staff members ∙ UN organisations in Germany: in total 30, 19 of them in Bonn Germany has been a political and military member of NATO ever since the German Armed Forces were set up in 1955. This firm anchoring in NATO is part of German for- eign policy’s DNA. Germany is the second largest provider of troops to NATO and con- tributes substantially to NATO-led mis- sions, such as the Resolute Support Mission (RSM) in Afghanistan or the KFOR in Koso- vo. Since 1992, some 40 foreign missions have been carried out. In spring 2018, the German Armed Forces had deployed about 3,500 soldiers on 14 missions. As a result of the Ukraine crisis, NATO has focussed more strongly on the core task of Alliance defence and resolved a number of adaptation and safeguarding measures. Germany plays a major role here: In 2015, together with the
Netherlands and Norway, the country helped set up the new, very high readiness joint task force (VJTF) which improves the Alliance’s response capabilities. In 2019 the German Armed Forces will again, on a rota- tion basis, as a Framework Nation play a leading role in VJTF. Moreover, Germany is contributing to policing the Baltic states’ air space and since 2017 as a Framework Nation has contributed in Lithuania to NATO’s en- hanced forward presence in the Baltic states and Poland. Bonn, where 19 of a total of 30 UN agencies in Germany are based. To optimise support for peacekeeping mis- sions by international organisations, Ger- many is further professionalising the training and posting of civilian crisis workers. Found- ed in 2002, the ZIF Centre for International Peace Missions has a pool of 1,500 experts on standby, with plans for further expansion. ZIF selects civilian experts, holds courses preparing them for postings as observers or arbiters in crisis zones and post-conflict Reliable and respected UN member countries, and evaluates their experiences. In Since being accepted into the UN in 1973, the Federal Republic of Germany has been an ac- tive, reliable, and respected member of the organisation. In 2018 Germany was elected a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for the sixth time. Each year, Ger- many contributes some 161 million US dol- lars to the regular UN budget, and about 466 million dollars to the budget for UN peace- keeping missions, in each case 6.4 percent of the total UN budget. In 2017-8 Germany was thus the fourth largest contributor. In the 2013-7 period, Germany quadrupled its pay- ments to the United Nations High Commis- sion for Refugees (UNHCR). With 387 million euros a year, Germany is the second-largest donor after the USA. In spring 2018 Germany took part in five UN peacekeeping missions, collaboration with the Federal Foreign Of- fice, the ZIF has meanwhile posted about 3,000 voluntary short and long-term election observers on missions and realised projects in 65 countries. As another key pillar of peace and security in Europe, Germany supports the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), which has its origins in 1995 in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). The baseline document for the OSCE is the Helsinki Final Act signed in 1975, agreeing amongst other things the inviolability of borders and the peaceful solution of conflicts as the principles of a European security order. The OSCE as central forum among others in Mali and in Lebanon. Of the for peace and security in Europe Western industrialised nations, Germany provides the most troops for UN peacekeep- Today, the organisation has 57 participating ing missions. The UN has a strong presence in states from Europe, North America, and Cen- Germany, in particular at the UN Campus in tral Asia, and it is thus the world’s largest re-
44 | 45 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y The German Armed Forces are involved in numerous missions abroad, e.g. the European Training Mission in Mali (EUTM) gional organisation for collective security. The OSCE maintains permanent missions in many countries to prevent conflicts and pro- the OSCE as a platform for dialogue on secur- ity policy, the OSCE Ministerial Council in Hamburg at the end of 2016 decided to man- mote democratisation, and, something Ger- date a structured dialogue on security-policy many also supports, regularly sends election challenges in Europe and their impact on ar- observers to participating states. During the maments control policies (“From Lisbon to Ukraine crisis, the OSCE’s significance as a Hamburg”). key tool for crisis management and a forum for dialogue and confidence building was Championing disarmament and once again manifest. The OSCE supports the arms controls efforts to solve the conflict in east Ukraine, amongst other things by moderating political Germany makes an important contribution negotiations and by a special monitoring to global security with its disarmament, mission, whereby some 650 civilian monitors arms control, and non-proliferation activ- in the area in conflict supervise compliance ities. Germany’s goal is a world without nucle- with the Minsk Agreement and try to verify ar weapons. For example, Germany seeks the the withdrawal of troops and weapons. Un- swift implementation of the Nuclear Test der the German chairmanship, the OSCE in Ban Treaty. Together with the five permanent 2016 resurrected past negotiation formats for members of the UN Security Council and the other flashpoints (Transniestria, Nagorno- European Union, Germany actively helped Karabakh). To restore trust and strengthen ensure that in July 2015 the Vienna Nuclear
ing at the end of 2016 emerged in 2017 under the German chairmanship as a crucial forum for the security architecture in the OSCE framework. It is designed to help discuss perceptions of threats, reanimate security cooperation and strengthen conventional arms controls. Agreement with Iran on the Iranian nuclear programme was concluded. Moreover, Ger- many advocates the universal validity and enforcement of the relevant international agreements and treaties, e.g. the Chemical Weapons Convention, which sets out the norm of the non-deployment of chemical weapons. Germany has also taken a clear position on arms control policy issues relating to new technologies, such as autonomous weapons systems. The Federal Government rejects fully autonomous weapons systems that undermine a final decision being subject to human control and seeks to ensure a global ban on such weapons. One goal of German foreign policy is the global realisation of the “Ottawa Convention”, the central treaty for banning anti-personnel mines. In 2017 Germany contributed about 75.7 mil- lion euros for projects to clear mines and care G L O B A L for the victims of mines, making it one of the largest donors in this area. German policies also focus on the destruction of surplus weapons and ammunition and the safe stor- age of dangerous substances. Conventional disarmament controls and confidence and security-building measures are very important within the OSCE area. Germany advocates modernising and adapt- ing these controls to current challenges and in 2016 initiated the relaunch of conven- tional armaments controls in Europe. The “Structured Dialogue” inaugurated at the Hamburg OSCE Ministerial Council Meet- Armed Conflict Survey 2017 According to the International Institute for Stra- tegic Studies (IISS) in London, in 2016 the number of war victims dipped. In 36 armed conflicts, in 2016 about 157,000 people lost their lives, roughly 10,000 less than in 2015. The war in Syria was the world’s most violent con- flict. 90 percent of Syrian refugees settled in neighbouring countries. At the end of 2016, a total of 65.6 million people were refugees. → iiss.org
46 | 47 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y T O P I C ADVOCATE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION No country in Europe has more neighbours than Germany. It shares its border with nine countries, eight of which are European Union (EU) member states. For Germany, Euro- pean integration, one of the most impressive political success stories, lays the foundations for peace, security, and prosperity. Advanc- ing and strengthening this, particularly in view of complex and in many cases crisis-rid- den conditions, remains the main task of German foreign policy. Begun in the early 1950s, the historical project that today is the EU nowadays has over half a billion citizens in 28 member states. German Euro pean pol- icy emerged as a driving force in all stages of European unification, and actively helped N U M B E R 512 million people live in the 28 member states of the European Union. This gives it the third-largest population after China and India. Its citizens speak 24 languages and live in an area covering four million square kilometres. GDP totals 15.33 tril- lion euros. With a share of 15.6 percent of the world’s exports and 14.8 percent of imports, the EU places second behind China and the USA respectively. → europa.eu shape the process of European cohesion fol- lowing the end of the East-West conflict. This European integration created the world’s largest common market, characterised by the four fundamental freedoms formulated in the 1957 Treaty of Rome: the free movement of goods between the EU member states, the freedom of movement of persons, the free- dom to provide services within the EU, and the free flow of capital. The size and economic output of the com- mon European market make the EU a major player in the global economy. The IMF is ex- pecting growth of 2.2 percent for 2018 in Euro land, which has 19 member states. As the strongest economy in the EU, Germany has a particular responsibility, not least of all at times of economic and social change. This was evidenced during the financial and sov- ereign debt crisis. The EMU member states set up the European Stabilisation Mechanism (ESM) as a rescue fund. In close partnership with France and the other member states, the Federal Government seeks to further strengthen and reform Euroland to enable the euro to withstand crises better. Franco-German friendship – the driving force behind European unification Parallel to European integration, after the Second World War France and Germany es- tablished a close partnership, which now-
M A P The 28 European Union member states at a glance United Kingdom * Ireland Denmark Sweden Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg France Germany Poland Czech Republic Austria Slovakia Hungary Slovenia Croatia Romania Italy Bulgaria Portugal Spain * Exits in March 2019 Malta The EU has successfully grown from six to 28 members in seven expansions since 1957 Greece Cyprus adays is often regarded as a model for recon- ciliation between two peoples. In 1957, both countries were amongst the six founding members of the European Economic Com- munity (EEC), the core of today’s EU. Fran- co-German friendship, substantiated by the 1963 Elysée Treaty, is nurtured by close re- lations between the civil societies and nu- merous Franco-German institutions. With regard to European and foreign policy is- sues, both countries cooperate closely and through joint initiatives repeat edly play a role in constructively advancing European policy. German-Polish collaboration is a more re- cent element in the European unification process. In the 1970s, Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik achieved initial successes in reconciliation with Poland.
48 | 49 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y This was continued by the recognition of the two countries’ common border in the Two Plus Four Treaty on the external as- pects of German Unity in 1990, and with the Border Treaty concluded the same year and institutionalised in the 1991 German- Polish Treaty on Good Neighbourliness. The close relationships with France and Po- land are nurtured in the trilateral format of the Weimar Triangle. resentative in discharging her duties. Through these institutional changes the EU has considerably strengthened its visibility and efficacy outside its own territory. The Common Security and Defence Policy ( CSDP) gives the EU the necessary oper- ational abilities to ensure effective crisis management. Civilian and military means are brought to bear. The long-term idea is to create a European Security and Defence More global weight through joint European action The 2009 Treaty of Lisbon institutionalised the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) still further. The EU High Represen- tative for Foreign Affairs and Security Pol- icy, who chairs the Council of Foreign Min- isters, is also Vice-President of the Euro pean Commission. Italian Federica Mogherini has held this office since 2014. She is also re- Union (ESDU). The influx of refugees and migrants above all in 2015 and 2016 into Europe is a pan- European issue for which Germany with its partners is seeking an enduring answer. The EU Commission’s “European Migration Agenda” has already achieved firm results with measures such as the EU-Turkey Decla- ration of March 2016, migration partner- ships with African home or transit coun- tries, and the battle against human traffick- sponsible for representing the EU externally ers: In 2017 the number of irregular border on all CFSP issues. The European External crossings on key migration routes fell Action Service (EEAS) assists the High Rep- 63-percent on the 2016 figure. The question M I L E S T O N E S 1957 The European unification process begins. The signing of the Treaty of Rome by Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands marks the foun- dation of the European Economic Community (EEC). 1979 Europeans vote together. The Members of the European Parlia- ment, which sits in Strasbourg and Brussels, are directly elected for the first time. They had pre- viously been delegated by the national parliaments. 1993 Europe’s union becomes tangible for its citizens. In Schengen in Luxembourg, Germany, France, and the Benelux countries agree to end internal border controls. Other countries follow.
European partners: Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron of the more just distribution of asylum seekers in the EU still requires a sustainable, fair an- swer, however. missions in crisis regions outline the dangers of flight and irregular migration and thus try to counteract the deliberate false information provided by criminal human traffickers. Germany is working intensely in the areas of crisis prevention and humanitarian assistance to combat the causes that force people to flee In the second half of 2020 it will be Ger- many’s turn to hold the EU Council Presidency their countries. Information plays a key role and it intends to set emphases in crucial and the Federal Foreign Office and the foreign political fields. 2002 Europe gives itself a currency. In initially 12 EU member states, the cash euro is introduced; it had served as book money since 1999. The new European Central Bank (ECB) is based in Frankfurt am Main. 2004 On 1 May Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Malta, and Cyprus join the EU. Bulgaria and Romania follow three years later; Croatia in 2013. 2009 The EU presents a united front in the world. With the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU creates the office of the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. A European External Action Service (EEAS) is established.
50 | 51 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y T O P I C PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS “Human dignity shall be inviolable. To re- spect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority.” This is the clear mandate in Article 1 of the German Basic Law, in which Germany acknowledges “inviolable and inalienable human rights” as “the basis of every community, of peace and of justice in the world”. Germany also takes this obli- gation seriously in its relations with foreign countries. The protection and strengthen- ing of human rights play a special role in the foreign-policy and international con- text, as systematic human rights violations are frequently the first step towards con- the protection and improvement of human rights standards. Commitment to international human rights institutions Germany is a contracting party to the UN’s important human rights treaties and their Additional Protocols (Civil Pact, Social Pact, Anti-Racism Convention, Women’s Rights Convention, Convention against Torture, Children’s Rights Convention, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabil ities, Convention for the Protection of All Persons flicts and crises. Together with its partners from Enforced Disappearance). Most recent- in the EU and in collaboration with the ly Germany signed the Add itional Protocol United Nations (UN), Germany advocates to the Convention against Torture, and the I N F O Civil Society The many non-govern- ment organisations in Germany also champion the global enforcement of human rights, progress in development policy, and humanitarian assistance. They encourage the politicians respon- sible to take action and raise awareness for such activities among the popula- tion. But they also take active steps themselves, collect donations and co- ordinate projects of their own. Around 120 organisations make up VENRO, the umbrella organisation of non-govern- mental development organisations. → venro.org Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, both of which have been in force since 2009. Germany was the first European nation to ratify the Add itional Protocol to the Children’s Rights Conven- tion, which makes an individual complaints procedure possible. The Federal Government supports protec- tion from discrimination and racism, takes an active stand worldwide against the death penalty and for political participation and legal protection, defends the freedom of re- ligion and belief, fights human trafficking, and pushes for enforcement of the right to housing and the right to clean water and sanitation. 2.1 billion people worldwide
The Human Rights Council in Geneva is the United Nations’ most important human rights committee have no access to clean water. Germany, as one of the largest donors in this sector, is helping to change this situation by spend- ing 400 million euros annually on several projects. Access to water, one of the more recent human rights issues, is a key focal point of German development cooperation. In Africa alone, by 2017 access to water sup- plies had thus been created for 25 million people. Germany was a member of the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, Switz erland, from 2013-5 and from 2016-8. The Human Rights Council’s most important tool is the Univer- sal Periodic Review, which provides all UN member states with an opportunity to de- clare what actions they have taken to fulfil their human rights obligations, and answer critical questions. Germany underwent this procedure in 2018 for the third time.
52 | 53 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y Germany is one of the most active coun- tries on the European Council, which has 47 member states and champions the protec- tion and promotion of human rights, the rule of law, and democracy throughout Eur- ope. With landmark conventions, in particu- lar the European Human Rights Convention, the European Council plays a strong role in establishing a common European judicial area and monitors adherence to binding common standards and values on the Euro- pean continent. that all member states of the European Coun- cil accept and implement the decisions of the ECtHR. The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, the Netherlands, is respon- sible for the prosecution under international criminal law of serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. Germany is in favour of univer- sal recognition of the ECtHR. The Federal Government Commissioner for Human Rights Policy and Humanitarian Aid, Bärbel Kofler, is based in the Federal Foreign International human rights Office. She observes international develop- policy tools The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg, France is one of the European Council’s main institutions for enforcing hu- man rights in Europe. Each and every citizen of the 47 member states of the European Coun- cil can resort directly to the ECtHR with com- plaints concerning a violation of rights pro- tected by the European Human Rights Con- vention. Germany emphatically advocates ments, coordinates human rights activities with other state bodies, and advises the Fed- eral Foreign Minister. The German parlia- ment, the Bundestag, has accompanied and monitored German human rights policy since 1998 through its Committee for Hu- man Rights and Humanitarian Aid. In 2000, the German Institute for Human Rights, a state-funded but independent body, was es- tablished in Berlin. As a national human rights institution as defined in the UN’s Paris D I A G R A M Spending on government development cooperation in USD billion (2017) Cooperation and development Germany is not only one of the important and major donor countries in the field of govern- ment development cooperation; it is also an important donor for, and actively helps shape humanitarian aid. USA Germany Great Britain Japan France 35.26 24.68 17.94 11.48 11.36 C A D / D C E O , 8 1 0 2 l i r p A s u t a t s , s e r u g fi y r a n m i i l e r P : e c r u o S
Principles, it is intended to help the promo- tion and protection of human rights by Ger- many at home and abroad. vided budgetary resources of some 1.75 billion euros for humanitarian aid. The Federal Gov- ernment does not provide this directly, but supports suitable projects conducted by the Humanitarian aid for people UN’s humanitarian organisations, the Red in acute need Through its humanitarian aid worldwide the Federal Government helps people in acute need as a result of natural disasters, armed conflicts, or other crises and conflicts – or where there is a risk of this becoming the Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and Ger- man non-government organisations. More- over, Germany is a long-standing supporter and second-largest donor to the UN’s Central Emergency Response Fund and the UN’s humanitarian community funds for countries. case. It is not about the causes of their plight. The protection of human rights is also an Humanitarian aid is an expression of ethical important field of activity for cyber foreign responsibility and solidarity with people in policy. In 2013 and 2014 the UN General As- need. It is geared to the requirements of the sembly passed resolutions on the right to pri- needy and is based on the humanitarian vacy in the digital age. They were on the back principles of humanity, neutrality, impar- of a German-Brazilian initiative. Germany is tiality, and independence. of the opinion that human rights online are just as valid as offline. In 2018 Germany em- Germany assumes responsibility globally for phasised its commitment to protecting per- people in distress and actively advocates sonal privacy in the cyber age and assumed strengthening and advancing the internation- the chair of the Freedom Online Coalition, al humanitarian system. In 2017, given the ever which champions promoting human rights growing need, the Federal Government pro- in the digital age. Budget for humanitarian assistance worldwide in 2016 20.3 USD billion 6.9 USD billion a t s i t a t S : s e c r u o S Humanitarian assistance from private donations Humanitarian assistance by governments Purpose of donations in Germany in 2017 77.7 % Humanitarian aid 5.4 % Animal protection 3.1 % Culture 2.7 % Environmental protection 1.9 % Sport 9.2 % Other/no info available
54 | 55 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y P A N O R A M A OPEN NETWORK PARTNER New York • United Nations headquarters Washington, D.C. • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • World Bank La Malbaie • Canadian Presidency of the G7, 2018 Luxembourg • EU Brussels • NATO • EU Stockholm • Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) Vienna • United Nations • OSCE Strasbourg • EU Paris • European Space Agency (ESA) • Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Geneva • United Nations • World Trade Organization (WTO) Buenos Aires • Argentine Presidency of the G20, 2018 Nairobi • United Nations New York United Nations headquarters Geneva Seat of the World Trade Organization IMF Germany has been a member of the International Monetary Fund since 1952 NATO Germany has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization since 1955 EU Germany has been a member of what is today the EU since it was founded in 1957 UN Germany became a member of the United Nations in 1973
The United Nations (UN) in Germany Hamburg Berlin Bonn Dresden Frankfurt Nuremberg Munich Hamburg International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Berlin • International Labour Organization (ILO) – office in Germany • International Organization for Migration (IOM) – Germany • The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) – Regional Representation for Germany and Austria • World Food Programme (WFP) – liaison office in Germany • Office of the World Bank in Berlin • UNICEF Office Berlin Bonn UN Campus • Secretariat for the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) • Secretariat for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • United Nations Volunteers (UNV) • United Nations SDG Action Campaign • United Nations System Staff College (UNSSC) • International Strategy for Disaster Reduction/Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning (UN/ISDR-PPEW) • United Nations University Vice Rectorate in Europe (UNU-ViE) • and 12 other UN agencies Dresden • United Nations University – Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNU-FLORES) Frankfurt am Main • International Finance Corporation (IFC), World Bank Group Hamburg • International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) • UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) Munich • United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)– Innovation Accelerator Strasbourg European Parliament Bonn The “Tall Eugene” building on the UN Campus Nuremberg • UNHCR Nuremberg branch OSCE Germany has been a member of what is today the OSCE since 1975 G7 WTO G20 Germany has been a Germany has been a member Germany has been a member of the informal bloc since it was founded of the World Trade member of the Group of Organization since 1995 Twenty since it was in 1975 founded in 1999 in Berlin
56 | 57 F O R E I G N P O L I C Y T O P I C SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT German development policy is geared as a cornerstone of a global structural and peace policy to helping improve living conditions in partner countries. It aims to overcome hunger and poverty worldwide and strength- en democracy and the rule of law. The Fed- eral Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development draws up the guidelines and concepts. As part of government develop- ment cooperation, Germany works with 85 partner countries in jointly agreed country programmes that can involve all the various government tools for development cooper- ation. Africa is a key region, but Germany also works extremely closely with countries in Asia, southeast Europe, and Latin America. as resolved by the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly at the end of September 2015. The core of the Agenda 2030 are the 17 ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Global realisation of the Agenda can lay the foundations for global economic pro- gress in harmony with social justice and within Earth’s ecological limits. Pursuit of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000-15 succeeded in halving poverty worldwide and, amongst other things, improving access to drinking water and educa- tion. From 2012-6, the number of the most impoverished people among the world’s popu- lation fell from 12.8 percent to 9.6 percent despite adjustments to the baseline defining In 2016 Germany for the first time achieved the absolute poverty from 1.25 to 1.90 US dollars goal set by the United Nations of investing a day. The major goal of eliminating extreme 0.7 percent of gross domestic product in devel- poverty by 2030 thus seems possible. Prob- opment cooperation. On an international scale, lems such as the overly great use of resources, Germany with an annual 24.68 billion dollars is ongoing climate change and the destruction the second-largest donor country for public de- of the environment, high unemployment and velopment cooperation after the USA. In the social inequality, remain urgent. The Agenda various country projects are managed by im- 2030 will boost a worldwide change in favour plementing organisations, as a rule Deutsche of more sustainability – in the economic, eco- Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenar- logical, and social dimensions, and taking the beit (GIZ) and the KfW Group, and also others. existing links between the three into consid- eration. It is meant as a “future agreement” The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable for the world applicable to all countries and Development addressing a broad range of policies that go far bey ond development cooperation: In Global development in the coming years will addition to the fight against starvation and be decisively influenced by the 2030 Agenda poverty, planet Earth, as the basis of existence
The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda aims to advance sustainable development in important areas for the future of future generations, will be protected; eco- nomic systems and lifestyles will become more just and more sustainable (as well as more efficient), discrimination will be fought, timately the agreement for ensuring sustain- ability in the future needs a “multi-player” approach: The plan envisages that in addition to governments, above all social groups and not least of all by strengthening effective in- the worlds of business and scholarship play clusive and democratic institutions, respon- important roles in the implementation of sible governance, as well as the rule of law. Ul- Agenda 2030.
58 | 59 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N BUSINESS & INNOVATION A Strong Hub ∙ Global Player ∙ Lead Markets and Innovative Products ∙ Sustainable Economy ∙ Digital Revolution ∙ A Valued Trading Partner ∙ Attractive Labour Market I N S I G H T A STRONG HUB Germany is the largest economy in the Euro- highest employment rates in the EU and is pean Union (EU) and the fourth largest in the the country with the lowest youth unem- world after the USA, China, and Japan. The ployment percentage. This underscores the German economy has its great innovative- value of dual vocational training, which has ness and strong focus on exports to thank for become an export commodity in its own its competitiveness and global networking. right and is being adapted by many coun- In high-selling sectors, such as car-making, tries. Factors such as the availability of skilled mechanical and plant engineering, the labour, infrastructure, and legal certainty are chemicals industry and medical technology, further characteristics of Germany, which is exports account for well over half of total very high on the list in many international sales. In 2016, only China and the USA ex- rankings. Peter Altmaier (CDU) heads the ported more goods. Germany invests 92 bil- Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and lion euros annually in research and develop- Energy. ment (R&D). Many companies are well on the way to “Industry 4.0”, a project destined in Since 1949 the idea of a social market econ- particular to advance digitisation in produc- omy has formed the basis of German eco- tion engineering and logistics. nomic policy. The social market economy guarantees free entrepreneurial activity The positive economic momentum has led while at the same time endeavouring to cre- to a favourable trend on the labour market. ate social checks and balances. Formulated in Germany is one of the countries with the the post-War years by Ludwig Erhard, who
V I D E O A R A P P Business & Innovation: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid3 Industry 4.0: the economy in Germany is fast en route to the digitised future
60 | 61 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N was later to become Federal Chancellor, the concept has kept Germany’s economic devel- opment on a successful track. Germany ac- tively engages in shaping globalisation and champions a sustainable global economic system, which offers fair opportunities to everyone. They supplement the corporations listed pri- marily on the DAX index at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the most important financial centre in Continental Europe. The European Central Bank, which as an EU institution among other things guards the euro’s price stability, is also headquartered in Frankfurt am Main. Germany is one of the 12 countries which in- troduced the euro in 2002. The financial mar- ket crisis (2008) and the subsequent debt crisis affected the whole of the Eurozone, Germany included. To combat adverse impacts, the Federal Government employed a twin-track strategy, which involved not taking on any new debt and adopting measures to bolster innovativeness. For the first time since 1969, the government has been able to present a balanced federal budget since 2014. Accounting for more than 99 percent of all companies, small and medium-sized enter- prises (SMEs) are the backbone of the econ omy. I N T E R N E T Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) Priority issues and initiatives → bmwi.de Employment Agency Labour market data and job vacancies → arbeitsagentur.de Virtual Welcome Center Point of contact for international jobseekers with information on jobs in Germany → arbeitsagentur.de Financial centre with a long-standing tradition: Frankfurt am Main is Germany’s most important stock exchange
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS Federation of German Industries The Federation of German Industries (BDI) repre- sents the interests of over 100,000 industrial com- panies. It has an extensive network in all import- ant markets and in international organisations. → bdi.eu German Chambers of Commerce Abroad The German Chambers of Commerce Abroad Germany Trade and Invest (AHK), delegations and representative offices Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) is the of German industry and commerce, form a economic development agency of the Federal network with 130 locations in 90 countries. → ahk.de Republic of Germany. With over 50 locations worldwide it helps German companies set German diplomatic missions business and technology location and helps The 227 embassies and consulates, together with the AHK and Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), are foreign com panies settle in Germany. → gtai.de up operations abroad, promotes Germany as a the third pillar in the promotion of foreign trade. → auswaertiges-amt.de Association of German Chambers of Commerce and Industry Council for Sustainable Development Appointed by the Federal Government, the Council for Sustainable Development is responsible among other things for developing The Association of German Chambers of measures to implement the National Sustain- Commerce and Industry (DIHK) is the umbrella o rganisation of the 80 German Chambers of Commerce and Industry; a total of 3.6 million ability Strategy. → nachhaltigkeitsrat.de commercial enterprises are members. → dihk.de German Institute for Economic Research The German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) in Berlin is the biggest of the numerous German economic research institutes. → diw.de D I G I T A L P L U S More information about all the topics in the chapter – annotated link lists, articles, documents, speeches; plus more in-depth information about topics such as the social market economy, dual vocational train- ing, economic policy, the European economic and finan- cial crisis. → tued.net/en/dig3
62 | 63 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N T O P I C GLOBAL PLAYER Germany is an industrialised nation with strong international links and a pronounced export focus. In the annual World Trade Or- ganization (WTO) rankings, Germany regu- larly places among the three largest exporters behind China and the USA. In 2017, the for- eign trade balance closed with a surplus of 245 billion euros. Exports by German compa- nies (goods and services) amounted to 1,279 billion euros, with the value of imports total- ling 1,034 billion euros. Germany is strongly integrated in the global economy and bene- fits from free trade and open markets. The pendent on exports; in industry it is even one in two. Over one million companies en- gage in foreign trade. In 2015, 720,000 corpor- ations imported goods from other countries, while approximately 360,000 were busy as exporters. Some 10,700 firms domiciled outside Germany played a significant role in German foreign trade; the Association of German Chambers of Commerce and In- dustry (DIHK) estimates that more than 7 million employees work for German com- panies abroad. World Economic Forum’s “Global Competi- In terms of exports, the emphasis is on tive Index 2017-2018” ranks Germany fifth in motor vehicles and automotive compo- the list of the most competitive countries. In nents, machines, chemical products, and IT all, 137 economies were rated. appliances and electronic products. These Every second euro earned in Germany is of German exports. Overall, the export ratio generated through an international business has since 1991 almost doubled, rising from transaction. Almost one job in four is de- 23.7 percent to 47.3 percent. In 2017 the four product groups account for a good half D I A G R A M Economic leadership German companies have an excellent international reputa- tion. They stand for “Made in Germany”, a quality seal held in high esteem worldwide. The world’s fourth-largest economic power, Germany has a pronounced export focus. Gross domestic product (GDP) 2016 (in US$ billion) 18,569.1 11,218.3 4,938.6 3,466.6 2,629.2 USA China Japan Germany United Kingdom e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F n a m r e G : e c r u o S
Containers – a symbol of globalisation: Hamburg docks is a major transhipment point The world’s largest trading nations in 2015 (share of world exports) 13.8 % China 9.1 % USA 8.1 % Germany 3.8 % Japan 3.4 % Netherlands Largest German companies in 2017 (sales in € million) Volkswagen Daimler AG Allianz BMW Group Siemens AG Deutsche Telekom Uniper 240,480 169,630 118,710 104,220 88,490 80,900 74,470 O T W , r e p a p s w e n . . Z A F . : e c r u o S
64 | 65 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N foreign trade ratio, i.e., the sum total of im- ports and exports in relation to the gross domestic product (GDP), stood at 86.9 per- cent. This makes Germany’s economy the “most open” of the G7 countries. By way of comparison, in 2015 the USA had a foreign trade ratio of 28 percent. The partner countries in the European Union (EU) are the most important market for German goods and attract 56 percent of all exports. France is traditionally Germany’s largest export market, though since 2015 the USA has headed the list, followed by the People’s Republic of China, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. With regard to imports, however, the rankings run the other way round: In 2017 most imports came from China, the Netherlands, France, the USA, and Italy. Although in some cases growth rates are weakening, nevertheless economic and trade relations with Asian countries are becoming ever more important and today 5,000 German companies have investments in China alone. German direct investments abroad, which since 1990 have increased fivefold to over one trillion euros (2015), are an expression of G L O B A L OECD Economic Outlook Twice a year in its Economic Outlook, the Organ- isation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) analyses the most important trends and the prospects for the next two years in the 34 OECD member countries and emerging nations. The overall assumption is that the global economy will grow by 3.5% in 2018. This would be the highest rate recorded since 2010. Growth is expected to weaken again in 2019. → oecd.org trade-fair centre when it comes to organis- ing and staging international trade fairs. Two thirds of globally important industry events are held in Germany. Every year, 10 million visitors attend around 150 inter- national trade fairs and exhibitions. its strong links within the global economy. At the same time Germany is a tranship- A fifth of the total was invested in Euroland. ment hub for the flow of goods in Europe On the other hand, some 80,000 foreign and the world as a whole. More goods transit companies employ more than 3.7 million through Germany than through any other people in Germany. The value of foreign di- EU country. About a third of the turnover in rect investments stands at 466 billion euros. the ten most important logistics markets in the EU is generated in Germany, with 3 mil- The trade-fair industry is regarded as the lion people involved in logistics. The Port of hub of world trade. Germany is the leading Hamburg, where around 9 million standard
containers are processed each year, is a gate- way to the world. Germany is involved in shaping globalisa- tion in various ways, be it through formu- Commitment to fair and regulating financial markets, or managing lating regulations for international trade, free global trade Germany supports open markets and fair, free trade based on clear and reliable regula- tions. Among other things, the country pur- sues these goals with the three pillars for the promotion of foreign trade. These in- clude 227 German diplomatic missions abroad, 130 German Chambers of Com- merce Abroad (AHK), delegations, and repre- sentative offices of the German economy in cash and foreign currency. Given failed multilateral negotiations (the Doha Devel- opment Round), close attention is being paid to bilateral EU free trade agreements. The EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) entered into force in 2017 and negotiations on a free trade agreement with Japan have been con- cluded; the only thing not yet agreed upon is investment protection. The EU Free Trade Agreement with South Korea, the first with 90 countries, and Germany Trade and Invest an Asian country, has been in force since (GTAI), the economic development agency 2011; since that time exports to South Ko- of the Federal Republic of Germany. They all rea have risen each year by some 10 percent. help small and medium-sized enterprises In 2015 the EU and Vietnam adopted a free penetrate new markets and endeavour to trade agreement, the first of its kind be- improve framework conditions. tween the EU and a developing country. Global market hubs: as many as 10 million visitors attend the major trade fairs annually
66 | 67 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N T O P I C LEAD MARKETS AND INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS Germany’s economic prowess is decidedly based on its industrial performance and its capacity for innovation. With 775,000 jobs, the automotive industry in particular is re- garded as a showcase discipline with regard to the Made in Germany seal of quality. With its six strong brands, namely Volkswagen, BMW, Daimler, and the VW-owned marques Audi and Porsche, as well as Opel (Groupe PSA), the automotive industry is one of the forces driving the global mobility sector. The companies invest billions in research and development (R&D) to shore up their competitive edge. Electronic and digital networking, as well as assisted or self-driv- ing cars, are the megatrends for automo- biles. In global terms, in 2017 the German carmakers, which have a major share in the middle and luxury car segments, produced some 16.45 million cars, with two out of three cars by German manufacturers being made abroad. Alongside the automotive industry, plant and mechanical engineering and the chem- ical industry are traditionally strong pillars of the German economy. Founded in 1865 and headquartered in Ludwigshafen, BASF, which has a payroll of 115,000 employees working at 353 production sites in more than 80 countries, is the world’s largest chemicals company. Key sectors also in- clude the electrical and electronic engin- eering industry, with global player Siemens active in 190 countries. Its application solu- tions, from mobility to renewable energies, are regarded as highly innovative. The fact that the major sectors of industry achieve ex- port ratios of 60 percent and more indicates just how important the global market is for them. The most important economic centres in Germany are the Ruhr Area, Greater Munich and Greater Stuttgart (high-tech, automotive construction), Rhine-Neckar (chemicals, IT), Frankfurt am Main (finance), Cologne and Hamburg (port, aircraft con- struction, media). In east Germany, small but efficient high-tech centres have emerged, in particular in the “beacon regions” of Dresden, Jena, Leipzig, Leuna, and Berlin- Brandenburg. Automotive groups head and dominate the list of the biggest German companies (by 2016 sales): Volkswagen comes first, with Daimler and BMW following in second and fourth place respectively. Allianz (insur- ance) is in third place and Siemens (electro- technology) fifth, ahead of Deutsche Tele- kom and Uniper, spun-off from energy group Eon. Industry in Germany specialises in the development and manufacture of complex goods, in particular capital goods and
Successful the world over: German car manufacturers are among the big players in the global mobility sector innovative production technologies. In- dustry carries far more weight in Germany than in many other economies. A total of 7.27 million people work in industry and manufacturing. Only in South Korea is the share of manufacturing in gross value added higher. The economy’s capacity for innovation is regarded as the driving force behind Ger- many’s economic strength. The step-up in R&D activities since 2007 has spurred trends. Both business and the public sector played a role in this; the Federal Govern- ment’s High-Tech Strategy has been a key stimulus here. In 2016 a total of 92 billion euros was spent on R&D in Germany, which corresponds to a 2.93-percent share of gross domestic product (GDP). This puts Ger- many in fifth place among comparable OECD countries, ahead of the USA and well ahead of France and Great Britain. Of Ger-
68 | 69 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N many’s main rivals, only South Korea and Japan invested more in R&D. Germany is considered to be Europe’s champion inven- tor. In 2016 German companies filed around 30 million people in gainful employment, 12 million work for public or private service providers, almost 10 million in retailing, hospitality and transportation, and more 32,000 applications for patent protection to than five million for corporate service pro- the European Patent Office in Munich. The viders. same year, 67,898 inventions were regis- tered with the German Patent and Trade Small and medium-sized enterprises – Mark Office (DPMA) – a new record. The the heart of the economy automotive supplier Bosch, with 3,693 regis- trations, and the Schaeffler Group (2,316), Despite the numerous global players and which likewise operates in the automotive large flagship businesses, the German components sector, were the most prolific. economy is characterised by 3.6 million In total there were exactly 129,511 German small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), patents in force in 2016. Including patents as well as countless self-employed persons granted by the European Patent Office, a and freelancers. The SME segment includes total of 615,404 patents were valid in Ger- around 99.6 percent of companies. SMEs many in 2016. are defined as firms with annual sales of less than 50 million euros and fewer Today, it is hard to imagine Germany as an than 500 employees. Numerous companies industrial centre without its services econ- founded by entrepreneurially minded mi- omy, which has long been on a constant grants now also enjoy SME status. More growth curve. A good 80 percent of all com- than 700,000 people with a migrant back- panies operate in this sector, accounting for ground own a company. As such, migrants almost 70 percent of gross domestic product in Germany are an important economic and three quarters of all jobs. Of around factor. M I L E S T O N E S 1955 On 5 August the one millionth VW Beetle leaves the assembly line in Wolfsburg. An absolute top seller, the car becomes a symbol of what went down in history as the Economic Miracle. 1969 In Toulouse (France) the Airbus consortium is founded as a Franco-German joint venture. Today, Airbus S.A.S. is the world’s second-largest aircraft manufacturer. 1989 Postal Reform I marks the begin- ning of the privatisation of the giant publicly owned corporation that is Deutsche Bundespost. The privatisation is regarded as one of the biggest reforms in German economic history.
According to studies by the KfW Banking Group, overall there is a decline in the num- ber of innovative companies – only 22 per- cent of SMEs invest in innovative products and processes. It is above all a few larger medium-sized companies that are respon- sible for innovation efforts. In numerous niche market segments, German SMEs are frequently hidden champions, with leaders offering highly innovative products in Euro- pean and global markets. The creative in- dustry has become firmly established in the fabric of the economy. Frequently in small, under-capitalised companies it plays a pion- eering role on the way to a digital, knowl- edge-based economy, and is regarded as a significant source of ideas for innovative products. With more than 30,000 such firms registered, the Berlin-Brandenburg area is considered to be an international seedbed for creative industries and start-ups. The economy is on the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution. Driven by the Internet, the real and virtual worlds are growing together to create an Internet of Things. The Federal Government’s aim is for the economy and scientists alike to sup- port the implementation of Industry 4.0 and in so doing position Germany as a lead- ing provider of these technologies and as a future manufacturing hub. I N F O Corporate tax rates Since the mid-1990s there has been an international trend towards falling corporate tax rates. Germany has long since not been among the high- tax countries. In comparison with other countries, if anything, it even has below-average tax and welfare contri- bution levels. The average overall tax burden for companies is less than 30 percent. On account of the locally variable trade tax rate, in some regions in Germany it is below 23 percent. → gtai.de 1990 The Treuhandanstalt, a govern- ment-owned but independent trust agency, begins transforming the socialist planned economy of the former East Germany with its several thousand state-owned en- terprises into a market economy. 2002 From 1948 until 1998 the Deutsche Mark is the official c urrency as “book money”, un- til 2001 as cash. It is replaced on 1 January 2002: Germany and 11 other EU Member States introduce the euro. 2018 In January 2018 the German share index DAX reaches an all- time high of 13,595 points. It reflects the performance of the 30 biggest German companies with the highest sales.
70 | 71 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N T O P I C SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY Germany is one of the world’s most sustain- able industrialised nations. This is the conclu- sion reached by an international comparative study of the 34 OECD member states. Against the backdrop of the United Nations’ 17 Sus- tainable Development Goals (SDGs), the countries were systematically analysed for the first time on the basis of 34 indicators resources. Consequently, in 2017 the Federal Government comprehensively advanced its sustainability strategy and aligned it with the UN’s 17 SDGs. The new strategy envis- ages three levels: measures with an impact in Germany, measures taken by Germany with a global impact, and the direct support of other countries by means of bilateral co- ranging from environmental protection operation. and growth to the quality of the welfare sys- tems. Germany was in sixth place, doing A growing number of companies in Ger many well in particular with regard to growth, are already making a commitment to society employment, and social security. as part of conducting sustainable business. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) primar- That said, in some areas Germany is far from ily hinges on each company’s core business, following a sustainable lifestyle, sustainable which by dint of globalisation impacts on eco- business, and a sustainable approach to natural nomic, social and environmental conditions. L I S T ∙ Biggest company: Volkswagen, 642,300 employees ∙ Biggest bank: Deutsche Bank, 97,535 employees ∙ Most important stock market index: Deutscher Aktienindex (DAX) ∙ Biggest trade fair grounds: Hanover ∙ Biggest aircraft manufacturer: Airbus, Hamburg Most DAX-listed companies as well as many SMEs, institutes, and non-governmental or- ganisations in Germany are members of the United Nations’ Global Compact Initiative, founded in 1999. The latter, together with the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enter- prises and the International Labour Organisa- tion’s Tripartite Declaration of Principles con- cerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy, form the bedrock of principles on which com panies base their CSR efforts. Worldwide, over 9,500 companies from more than 160 countries are members of the volun- tary Global Compact Initiative. The fact that social and ecological responsi- bility go hand in hand also becomes evident in
Decent work: more and more German companies are placing importance on fair standards in global delivery chains the “Alliance for Sustainable Textiles”, which seeks to achieve improvements on both counts for those employed in the textile and clothing industry. 150 German textile manu- facturers have joined the initiative launched by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooper- ation and Development (BMZ) in 2014. Its members cover around 50% of the German textile market; the goal is to raise that figure to 75%. Considerable improvements have been made on all sides since the fatal accidents in the textile factories in Bangladesh and Paki- stan. As of 2018 the Alliance is setting specific standards for all members designed to ensure that the ambitious goals are met. Through the Alliance, Germany documents its pioneering role with regard to international efforts for fair standards in global delivery chains.
72 | 73 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N T O P I C DIGITAL REVOLUTION The economy is in the middle of the fourth industrial revolution. Driven by the Inter- net, through a digital transformation pro- cess the real and virtual worlds are becom- ing increasingly intertwined and together form an Internet of Things. Digitisation represents an historic change for industry and the service economy. The collective term Industry 4.0 embraces solutions, pro- cesses and technologies and describes the extensive use of IT and a high degree of sys- tem networking in factories. Many German companies champion Industry 4.0, which in particular advances digitisation in the areas of production engineering and logistics. N U M B E R 714 Internet service providers and other organisations are linked up to DE-CIX. In terms of data throughput, the Internet hub in Frankfurt am Main is the largest in the world. In 2017 data throughput reached the 6-Terabit- per-second mark for the first time. In addition to the Frankfurt hub, DE-CIX operates further Internet hubs in Europe, the Middle East, North America, and India. → de-cix.net Overall, industry is expecting ever more intense international competition for lead- ership in technology. The Federal Govern- ment is promoting and actively shaping digital change, and has formulated in the new Coalition Agreement seven ambitious goals, first and foremost developing a “world-class” comprehensive digital infra- structure. Germany, so the plan, will become the leading provider of Industry 4.0 and the number-one digital growth country in Eur- ope. In positive scenarios, studies estimate add itional economic growth potential from Industry 4.0 of between 200 and 425 billion euros by 2025. As a cross-cutting technol ogy, the information and commu- nications technology (ICT) sector plays a key role here. In 2017 it became the largest industrial employer. Over one million em- ployees generate sales of 160 billion euros. The software industry was a particular en- gine here. The development of the digital infrastruc- ture is regarded as one of the key tasks in the digitisation drive. The goal: compre- hensive development of gigabit networks. Fibre-optic connections are to be installed in every region, in every municipality, ideally up to every building by 2025. This requires telecommunications providers and the state to pull together. The Federal Gov-
Always online: developing the digital infrastructure is among the Federal Government’s key projects ernment is earmarking up to 12 billion euros for this purpose in the current legisla- tive period. The upcoming 5G generation of mobile communications will play a key role on the path to digitisation. By 2020 some 770 mil- lion devices will be networked in Germany alone – alongside smartphones and tablets also vehicles, household appliances, and in- dustrial machines. This poses a challenge above all for mobile connections. The Fed- eral Government aims to make Germany the leading market for 5G. The technology is to be tested in five regions to accelerate development and ensure comprehensive, full coverage. The commercial launch is ex- pected as of 2020.
74 | 75 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N P A N O R A M A A VALUED TRADING PARTNER Key exports by type of goods (2017) 18.3 % Cars & automotive components 14.4 % Mechanical equipment 9.0 % Chemical products 8.6 % ICT equipment 6.5 % Electrical equipment Germany’s exports (goods) by region (2017) Eurozone 36.9 % European countries make up Germany’s main export market, accounting for 68 percent of German exports. They are followed by the USA, which absorbs 8.7 percent, and China with 6.7 percent. EU excl. the Eurozone 21.7 % Rest of Europe excl. EU 9.6 % Africa 2.0 % Australia Oceania 0.9 % 1,279 billion euros 1,034 billion euros 50 % Total value of exported goods Value of imported goods of goods are exported 25 % of jobs depend on exports
The 25 largest export markets in percent (2017) USA: 8.7 Mexico: 1.0 United Kingdom: 6.6 Finland: 0.9 Sweden: 2.1 Russian Federation: 2.0 Denmark: 1.5 Belgium: 3.5 Poland: 4.7 Czech Republic: 3.3 Netherlands: 6.7 Germany Slovakia: 1.0 Hungary: 2.0 Turkey: 1.7 Republic of Korea: 1.4 People’s Republic of China: 6.7 Japan: 1.5 France: 8.2 Spain: 3.4 Switzerland: 4.2 Italy: 5.1 Romania: 1.2 India: 0.8 Austria: 4.9 United Arab Emirates: 0.9 Asia excl. China 9.9 % USA 8.7 % China 6.7 % Americas excl. USA 3.3 % 5.7 million Cars produced by German manufacturers (in Germany) 10.0 million Cars produced world-wide by German manufacturers (outside Germany) 150 Key trade fairs in Germany 288 Participations in foreign trade fairs
76 | 77 B U S I N E S S & I N N O V A T I O N T O P I C ATTRACTIVE LABOUR MARKET The German labour market has tended ever up- wards in recent years. On an annual average, in 2017 44.3 million people were in gainful em- ployment in Germany. The high employment is an expression of the country’s sound economic situation. Germany is one of the EU member states with the lowest unemployment. In 2017 the unemployment rate was on average 5.7 per- cent, and thus at its lowest level since 1990. This development is borne by a broad-based econ- omy. Firms’ demand for new staff is continually rising. As in prior years, in 2017 it was above all employment subject to social insurance contri- butions that strongly increased. The figures for The low level of youth unemployment has drawn the world’s attention to the success of dual vocational training, which differs from purely school education. In most countries, the completion of schooling marks the start of working life. Having finished school, al- most half of young people in Germany, how- ever, embark on a course of training. These are offered in one of the 350 state-recognised occupations for which accredited vocational training is required within the framework of the dual system. The young people thus re- ceive practical training in their company on three to four weekdays, while on the other marginal employment and self-employment day(s) they receive theoretical instruction at a continued to fall. I N F O Make it in Germany - The official on- line portal for international skilled workers supports people interested in moving to Germany from their arrival to their job search. Experts are also on hand to offer individual advice on visas, recognition of qualifications, and living in Germany – via e-mail, hotline or online chat. Moreover, the portal provides information on the benefits of a training or study programme in Germany in German, English, French, and Spanish. → make-it-in-germany.com vocational school. Several countries are cur- rently adapting the system of dual vocational training. With a view to creating a modern, fair, and transparent labour market, the Federal Govern- ment has realised numerous projects relating to labour-market policy. Since the beginning of 2015 a statutory minimum wage has been in place. Moreover, the quota for women is in- tended to ensure equal numbers of men and women in top management positions. Since 2016, listed companies and those that are sub- ject to co-determination regulations have had to adhere to a 30-percent quota for women for seats on the supervisory board. Furthermore, the “Collective Bargaining Act” guarantees that within a company different collective wage agreements do not apply for the same work.
Dual vocational training: the German model, which combines theory and practice, is being adapted in many countries What is more, as of 1 July 2014 those who can prove that they have paid social security contri- butions for 45 years can retire without any de- ductions at the age of 63. The Federal Government aspires to achieve full employment. Yet in light of Germany’s demo graph ic change, one of the country’s most pressing tasks is also to secure its skilled labour base. “Make it in Germany”, a multi-language Internet portal for international skilled work- ers, is a major project designed to open up the labour market. It provides information about career opportunities for those interested in coming to Germany and has current job list- ings for professions in demand (healthcare, engineering and IT). Fur thermore, thanks to the EU Blue Card graduates and skilled work- ers have easy access to the German labour market.
78 | 79 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E ENVIRONMENT & CLIMATE A Pioneer in Climate Policy ∙ Innovative Force behind Climate Cooperation ∙ Energy Transition – A Project for Generations ∙ Greentech – A Sector with a Future ∙ Sustainable Energies ∙ Essential Diversity I N S I G H T A PIONEER IN CLIMATE POLICY The 21st century is regarded as the “century of even striving for at least 70 percent by 2040 and the environment”. In other words, the extent to 80-95 percent by 2050. In November 2016 the which the natural living conditions of future Federal Government was one of the first coun- generations on Earth change will be decided in tries worldwide to specify corresponding cli- the next decades. A rise in the speed of climate mate-policy principles and targets in its “Cli- change is primarily regarded as the main dan- mate Action Plan 2050”. A 28-percent reduction ger. Environmental and climate protection had already been achieved by 2017. have long been a high priority in Germany. In- ternationally, Germany leads the way in climate Internationally as well, the Federal Govern- protection and is a pioneer in the development ment actively supports environmental pro- of renewable energy sources. tection, cooperation on energy issues, and cli- mate-friendly development. In line with the With the changes to the energy sector, referred 2015 Paris Agreement, Germany is committed to as the Energy Transition, Germany is leaving to limiting global warming to well below 2 de- the age of fossil and nuclear energy clearly be- grees Celsius and ideally to 1.5 degrees Celsius. hind it and heading fast for a future that hinges The aim is to achieve broad greenhouse gas on sustainable energy sources. This involves a emissions neutrality worldwide at the latest gradual exit from nuclear power by 2022. Fur- in the second half of the century. To this end, thermore, by 2030 Germany plans to have re- emissions of carbon dioxide in the industri- duced its greenhouse gas emissions by 55 per- alised countries need to be reduced by 80 cent in comparison to the 1990 levels, and is to 95 percent. Complete “decarbonisation” is
V I D E O A R A P P Environment & Climate: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid4 There is no turning back on the road to the age of renewable energy
80 | 81 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E intended to be achieved before the century is out. The UN Secretariat that monitors the im- plementation of the framework climate con- vention is based in the Federal City Bonn. An intact environment – pure air, clean water, varied nature – is a prerequisite for a high qual- ity of life. Since 1994, environmental protection has been a national objective enshrined in the Basic Law. With regard to air and water quality, indicators have for years now evidenced con- siderable improvement. There has been a sharp fall in the emission of pollutants such as sul- phur dioxide and nitrogen oxides – but there is still room for improvement. There has also been a noticeable drop in the per capita con- sumption of drinking water – from a peak of 140 to around 120 litres a day. Germany is pursuing a strategy of combining economic growth and environmental protec- tion with a view to sustainable economics. In addition to the development of renewable energies, the main contributory factors to this are an increase in the efficient use of energy and resources, and the smart use of regenerative raw materials. It a strategy that pays off twofold, be- cause on the one hand the impact on the envir- onment and climate declines, while on the other new fields of business and jobs are created. I N T E R N E T UNFCCC Secretariat of the United Nations Frame- work Convention on Climate Change → unfccc.int BMU Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety → bmu.de BUND Bund für Umwelt- und Naturschutz Deutschland/Friends of the Earth Germany → bund.net In Germany, wind power and solar energy are the most important and inexpensive renewable sources of energy
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS Umweltbundesamt This authority, which is subordinate to the Fed- eral Ministry for the Environment, provides the Federal Government with scientific expertise. The Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environment Agency) is responsible for enforcing environ- mental laws, for example the marketing approv- al of chemicals, medication, and pesticides, as well as informing the public about environmen- tal protection. → umweltbundesamt.de German Energy Agency Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) is a federal enterprise with worldwide operations. It assists the Federal The German Energy Agency (DENA) is a centre Government in achieving objectives in the field of expertise for energy efficiency, renewable of development. It advises developing and energy sources, and intelligent energy systems. emerging countries on questions relating to It supports the implementation of the Energy environmental protection, as well as on the just Transition and promotes the generation and use of energy in as efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly a way as possible. → dena.de and sustainable use of water as a resource. → giz.de Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Agora Energiewende The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) is responsible for the national and international The Agora Energiewende think tank sees itself conservation of nature. Its website features ex- as a forum for dialogue with key stakeholders in the energy policy debate. → agora-energiewende.org cellent maps of conservation areas. → bfn.de Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research This institute addresses key scientific issues re- lating to global climate change and sustainable development. → pik-potsdam.de D I G I T A L P L U S More information about all the topics in the chapter – annotated link lists, articles, documents, speeches; plus associated terms such as the Framework Convention on Climate Change, greenhouse gas emissions, the Renewable Energy Sources Act, and EU climate protection objectives. → tued.net/en/dig4
82 | 83 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E T O P I C INNOVATIVE FORCE BEHIND CLIMATE COOPERATION Internationally, Germany has played a pivot- al role in putting climate protection on the map. The Federal Government was an inno- vative force at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Sum- mit as long ago as 1992 and for the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. However, it wasn’t until 2015 that a major breakthrough was made, namely with the Paris Agreement. Here 195 countries adopted the very first universal, legally bind- by at least 40 percent by 2030. The main tool is the EU emission trading scheme, which regulates the emission of carbon dioxide by around 11,000 major industrial corporations and power plant operators. It was reformed in 2018 with a view to making it more effec- tive. Germany is also actively advancing cli- mate cooperation with other countries and supports, for example, partner countries in ing global climate protection agreement. The achieving their national climate protection goal is to halt the rise in global average tem- goals (Nationally Determined Contributions, perature and ideally limit it to 1.5 degrees NDCs) in the context of the NDC partnership Celsius. To this end, the states have resolved established in 2016. These NDCs form the to reduce or maintain a low level of green- core of the Paris Agreement. house gas emissions. National targets set by each country are to be regularly reviewed. Germany’s pioneering role in climate re- The Climate Change Conference held in search is supported by work at universities Bonn in 2017 addressed how to achieve this. and institutes such as the Potsdam Institute The European Union (EU) spearheads inter- for Climate Impact Research and the Wup- national efforts for a global climate protec- pertal Institute for Climate, Environment tion agreement. It strives to reduce emissions and Energy. M I L E S T O N E S 1976 The then German Ministry of Research resolves to build a 100-metre-high large wind power plant (Growian) in north Germany. However, the first experiment with wind power fails and Growian is torn down in 1988. 1987 At Kaiser Wilhelm Koog on the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, the first German windfarm goes turnkey. Since then, 32 wind turbines have been transforming North Sea wind into electrical power. 1991 The Electricity Feed-In Act regu- lates the obligation for power utilities to purchase electrical energy from regenerative trans- formation processes and sets fixed tariffs for the remuneration thereof.
The United Nations’ Climate Secretariat in Bonn monitors the Framework Convention on Climate Change 2000 The Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) comes into force. Among other things, it lays the legal basis for prioritising renewable sources when feeding electricity into the national grid. 2011 After the nuclear reactor disaster in Fukushima the German Federal cabinet adopts parameters for en- ergy policy: the exit from nuclear power is to be achieved step by step by 2022 and energy supplies placed on an eco-friendly footing. 2017 The German auto industry is in- creasingly investing in e-mobility. Some 40 billion euros will go into R&D by 2020. The number of electric models will treble from 30 to 100 over the same period.
84 | 85 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E T O P I C ENERGY TRANSITION – A PROJECT FOR GENERATIONS The Energy Transition is the single most import ant economic and environmental policy task in Germany. The Energy Transition refers to the restructuring of the country’s energy supply sources away from fossil fuels and nuclear power, towards renewable ener- gies. By 2050 at the latest, a minimum of 80 percent of electricity and 60 percent of all energy in Germany will come from renew- able energies, so the plan. The next step will involve gradually shutting down all nuclear power stations by 2022. Since 2017 there have only been seven nuclear power stations still in operation, providing a good 10 per- cent of the electricity mix. The Federal Gov- ernment is thus pressing ahead with the L I S T ∙ Largest onshore wind farm: Stössen-Teuchern in Saxony-Anhalt ∙ Largest offshore wind farm: alpha ventus in the North Sea ∙ Most powerful wind turbine: SG 8.0-167 DD by Siemens ∙ Largest solar park: Solarkomplex Senftenberg ∙ Largest electricity exchange: EEX (European Energy Exchange) in Leipzig sustainable restructuring of the energy sys- tem, which began as long ago as 2000 with the first resolution on an exit from nuclear power and the promotion of the Renewable Energy Sources Act. In Germany the promo- tion of renewable energies began back in the 1990s and in the year 2000 was made into law in the form of the Renewable Energy Sources Act. Exit from nuclear power based on long-term planning Likewise in the year 2000, the Federal Gov- ernment agreed with the German energy companies on an exit from nuclear power by 2022. As such, the resolutions the Federal Government passed in 2011 follow in the trad- ition of restructuring of the energy system to rely on sustainable energy sources. It views the accelerated reorganisation of the energy system, which in 2011 the parties represent- ed in the German Bundestag passed with the express approval of a large majority of the population following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan, as “a necessary step on the way to an industrial society committed to the idea of sustainability and the preserva- tion of Creation”. However, it is not only the environment and climate that are intended to benefit from the Energy Transition, but the German economy as well – the primary aim being to
Offshore wind farms in the North Sea are the main pillars of the Energy Transition eliminate reliance on international imports of crude oil and natural gas. To date, Ger- many spends around 45 billion euros annually on the import of coal, crude oil, and natural gas. In coming years, this amount will be gradually eliminated by domestic value added in the field of renewable energies; of the Energy Transition – the more econom- ical, more efficient use of energy – is another major task. Industry and large business en- terprises have already achieved significant savings, and standards are high. Small com- panies and public facilities still have some catching up to do. Improving the energy moreover, these measures result in addition- consumption of old buildings in particular al export opportunities and the prospect of is especially important with regard to in- more jobs. Strengthening the “second pillar” creasing energy efficiency, and the Federal
86 | 87 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E Government makes grants available for the purpose. Buildings account for around 40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. many in third place behind China and Japan in terms of nameplate capacity. Electricity consumption also needs to be re- The Renewable Energy Sources Act duced: Further efforts are needed to reach an international benchmark the goal of a 10-percent reduction by 2020 outlined in the original energy concept. The Energy Transition seeks not only to mini- mise risks, but also to enhance climate-com- patible energy consumption and high supply security. The dynamic development of re- newable energies has meant an increase in the proportion of carbon dioxide-free energy in the electricity mix. In 2017, green electri- city had a 33.1-percent share. Depending on weather, at peak output solar and wind power plants can cover up to 90 percent of electricity demand in Germany. Over 60 percent of all new residential build- Regarded in several countries as a bench- mark, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) was amended in 2014. The aim was to ensure that the population and business could afford energy, and that its supply was guaranteed. The background: As a result of the strong increase in the number of solar power systems and a different method of cal- culation, after 2009 there was a considerable increase in what is known as the EEG cost levy, whereby the increased cost of expand- ing green electricity is passed on to con- sumers on a pro-rated basis. This sparked a public debate on the cost of green electricity and the Energy Transition. A fall in this share ings are already heated with renewable ener- in the costs was seen in 2015 for the first time. gies. In late 2017, there were 1.6 million solar The Federal Government is also working on PV systems installed, generating approx. re-designing the structure of the electricity 43 gigawatts in rated power, putting Ger- market to ensure stable supplies despite a D I A G R A M Gross electricity generation in 2017 Electricity generation In 2017 electricity gen- erated from renewable energies increased yet again and accounted for 33.1 percent of gross electricity gener- ation in Germany. 22.6 % Lignite 5.2 % Other sources 13.1 % Natural gas 11.6 % Nuclear power 14.4 % Hard coal 33.1 % Renewable sources 16.1 % Wind power 7.9 % Biomass 6.1 % 3.0 % Solar PV Hydroelectricity e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : e c r u o S
strong increase in the volume of fluctuating need to be expanded in order to be able to wind and solar power generated. Among accommodate the solar power that is fed into other things it is about ensuring the avail- the network from decentral sources. ability of gas-fired power stations, which can be used as required, and which emit considerably less carbon dioxide than coal- fired power stations. The Energy Transition requires not only the establishment of new, “green” power stations. To ensure a reliable supply, power grids have to be adapted to the new structure. To this end there are plans to add several hundred kilometres of “power highways”. This way electricity from wind power, which is primar- ily generated in north Germany, can reach the strong economic hubs that are the centres of consumption in the south over long distances without major losses. The original plans to in- stall overland cables were abandoned due to civil protests. In 2015 the Federal Government resolved to install underground cables. The major lines are now intended to go operational in 2025 at the earliest, and not 2022 as origin- ally planned. In addition, the regional grids G L O B A L Climate study 800 scientists from 80 countries work for the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In spring 2015, the panel of experts issued the Synthesis Report of the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report. It states that greenhouse gas emissions are the main cause of climate change. Drastic steps are needed if global warming is to be limited to two degrees Celsius. → ipcc.ch Carbon dioxide emissions in 2015/worldwide share Share of electricity in Germany generated from renewable sources (terawatt forecast) Germany Japan Russian Federation India United States A E I : e c r u o S China 2.0 % 4.0 % 5.0 % 6.0 % 15.0 % 28.0 % 80 % 28 % 35 % 14 % 2007 2014 2020 2050 i W M B / W E D B / E S I r e f o h n u a r F : e c r u o S
88 | 89 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E T O P I C GREENTECH – A SECTOR WITH A FUTURE Both the economy and the labour market are benefitting from the leading role Ger- small to me dium-size enterprises, though corporations such as Siemens are important many plays in technologies for environ- players. Under the label “GreenTech Made mental protection, renewable energies, and in Germany” the companies are posting the efficient use of resources. The environ- considerable export successes; their share ment sector is making a considerable con- of the global market is around 15 percent. tribution to sustainable growth and is aid- With an “Environmental Technology Ex- ing the development of new technologies – port Initiative” Germany intends to im- in the fields of energy generation, ICT, and prove its situation still further and would materials technology. Just under 700,000 like to position itself primarily as an inte- people work in the energy sector; almost grated solutions provider. half of them in the field of renewable ener- gies. This puts Germany among the six Electromobility will be an important leading countries in terms of employment future issue in the environmental sector in this sector. Overall the latter is shaped by N U M B E R 1.79 million kilometres is the length of the German national grid. You could circumnavi- gate the globe at the Equator 45 times using the cables. The vast majority of the grid, namely a total of 1.44 million kilometres or 80 percent, is under- ground. Around 350,000 kilometres are power lines. The supra-regional high- voltage lines are 34,810 kilometres long. About 2,650 kilometres of new power lines are being planned as part of the Energy Transition. → bundesnetzagentur.de Electromobility is also expected to give en- vironmental and climate protection a fur- ther boost. The electromobility of the future is likewise a key issue being addressed today in China, Japan, and North America. The Federal Government and the automotive industry are jointly pursuing the ambitious goal of making Germany the leading mar- ket for electromobility and locking into the immense potential this global market has to offer. The plan is for the increasing num- ber of electric cars to help lower carbon di- oxide emissions still further, a sixth of which stems from road traffic. German car manufacturers are addressing e-mobility concepts in great depth. They are investing 40 billion euros in research and develop- ment by 2020 and aim to raise the number of models to over 100.
Electromobility is one of the major topics the German automotive industry will address in the future In order to help electric cars make their breakthrough, the Federal Government is supporting the development with buyer’s premiums, tax incentives, and comprehen- sive subsidies to improve the charging infra- structure. It has also considerably increased spending on energy research, with a particu- lar focus on more powerful batteries for electric cars. The “2020 Battery” project is re- garded as a showcase project and is intended to produce evolutionary, advanced materials for R&D on the most efficient battery sys- tems. In the meantime German and European universities and higher education institutes now offer around 1,000 innovative courses in the field of renewable energies and energy efficiency, which attract many international students.
90 | 91 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E P A N O R A M A SUSTAINABLE ENERGIES Inner workings of a modern German wind turbine Enercon E-126 type with a 4,200 kW power rating Machine frame Yaw drive Ring generator Blade pitch control Rotor hub Rotor blade 6 5 4 3 1 2 Wind power plants The wind drives the rotor blades. The gener- ator transforms the mechanical energy into electrical power. Transformer house The transformer feeds the power at the right voltage to the grid operator. Substation The substation transforms the medium voltage into high voltage for transmis- sion over greater distances. 110,000 V 690 V 10,000 V - 30,000 V 15 % 11 % 338,600 more electricity less electricity from nuclear employees in the renewable from renewable sources (2016 – 2017) power stations (2016 – 2017) energy sector 10,000 new jobs p.a. thanks to the Energy Transition (through 2017) 123456
Use of wind power and solar energy by federal state in output (MW) Schleswig- Holstein 1,408 3,753 Mecklenburg- West Pomerania 1,099 2,278 35 Hamburg 56 143 36 Bremen 2 69 Solar energy Wind power 33.1 % In 2017, 33.1 percent of the electrical energy consumed was generated by renewable sources. 28,675 In 2017 a total of 28,675 wind power plants were installed in Germany. 1.6 million At year-end 2017 1.6 mil- lion solar PV plants were installed in Germany. Lower Saxony 3,258 7,617 1,561 Saxony- Anhalt Berlin Brandenburg 4,102 2,712 5,099 North Rhine- Westphalia 3,430 1,662 2,313 Rhineland- Palatinate 202 4,645 3,921 1,696 366 Saarland 1,027 Hesse 1,088 Saxony 1,414 1,059 907 Thuringia 10,437 1,035 571 Bavaria Baden- Wurttemberg Power grid Electricity is distributed to the individual regions via the high-voltage power grid. Substation In a second substation the high voltage is stepped down to 230 volts. Households A 5 MW wind power plant can supply electricity to some 4,900 households a year – and to about 14,600 persons. Up to 380,000 V 230 V 10.1 billion euros 1.5 billion euros 1.79 for new wind power for new solar power million kilometres of cable 1,300 kilometres plants (2016) plants (2016) for the power grid of “power highways”
92 | 93 E N V I R O N M E N T & C L I M A T E T O P I C ESSENTIAL DIVERSITY Germany is a country with great biological diversity. Around 48,000 animal species, and 24,000 types of higher plants, mosses, fungi, lichens, and algae are native to the country. Having been enshrined in the Basic Law in ernmental treaties and programmes with nature protection as their goal. By ratifying the United Nations’ Convention on Biodi- versity, the governments of 196 countries pledged to significantly reduce the rate of 1994, the protection of the natural habitats is loss of biological diversity. To date, however, an official goal of government. Between the no turnaround in the extinction of species North Sea and the Alps, the lawmakers have has been achieved. In 2010, an international designates 16 national parks and 16 UNESCO framework for access to genetic resources biosphere reserves that are totally different and fair benefit sharing was passed at the in character, along with thousands of nature Conference of Parties to the Convention in reserves. Nagoya (Japan). The Nagoya Protocol has Germany is a signatory state to the most important international agreements on bio- In Germany more than 40 percent of verte- diversity, and a party to around 30 intergov- brates and plant species are considered to be been in force since 2014. I N F O Wild animals For several years now, an increasing number of wild animals have been resettling in Germany. In more than 60 packs, an estimated total of up to 600 wolves are now roaming the eastern and northern federal states. Wild cats and lynxes are being sighted ever more frequently. The number of pairs of breeding sea eagles has reached unprecedented heights; otters are almost a familiar sight again. There have even been occasional sightings of elks and brown bears, which are wandering into Germany from neighbouring countries in the east. → wwf.de endangered. For this reason, efforts aimed at nature conservation and species protection on land, in the water, and in the North and Baltic Seas are to be stepped up. The primary objective is to reduce the destruction of habi- tats by house and road building, as well as the pollution levels that result, among other things, from intensive farming and over-fer- tilisation. The amount of land used for hous- ing construction and new transport routes is intended to be reduced from 70 to 30 hec- tares daily. A further aim is to allow “wilder- ness” on two percent of the nation’s territory and give five percent of forests over to na- ture. In 2015, numerous former military zones covering a total of 31,000 hectares, in- cluding moors and heaths, were devoted to nature conservation.
M A P UNESCO biosphere reserves and national parks in Germany Wadden Sea mudflats and Hallig islands of Schleswig-Holstein Hamburg mudflats Lower Saxon mudflats Western Pomeranian Boddenlandschaft Jasmund Southeast Rügen Lake Schaalsee Müritz Elbe River Landscape Schorfheide-Chorin Lower Oder Valley Harz Kellerwald-Edersee Hainich Eifel Rhön Hunsrück-Hochwald Vessertal- Thuringian Forest Spree Forest Upper Lusatian Moorland Saxon Switzerland Bliesgau Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Bavarian Forest Black Forest Swabian Alb National Park Biosphere Reserve Berchtesgadener Land Berchtesgaden Increasing attention is being paid to protect- ing the marine environment. Seas are rich in biodiversity and a source of raw materials, energy, and food. Oil production, shipping, overfishing, littering with poorly degradable oceans. The Federal Government intends to use its EU Presidency in 2020 to ambitiously expand European environmental protection, with more funding for nature conservation and a new independent EU conservation substances (plastic waste), and acidification fund. Particular attention will be given to caused by carbon dioxide put an immense the insect die-off. The Federal Government strain on the ecosystem. In the context of intends to launch an action plan to improve Germany’s G20 Presidency in 2017, govern- living conditions for insects. A scientific bio- ment representatives and experts agreed on a diversity monitoring centre is also to be es- joint action plan to stop the littering of the tablished.
94 | 95 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E EDUCATION & KNOWLEDGE Vibrant Hub of Knowledge ∙ Dynamic Academic Landscape ∙ Ambitious Cutting-edge Research ∙ Networking Academia ∙ Research and Academic Relations Policy ∙ Excellent Research ∙ Attractive School System I N S I G H T VIBRANT HUB OF KNOWLEDGE Germany is one of the top places in the world their gross domestic product in research and for research and academic training. This is development; the figure is set to be boosted to symbolised by the fact that with more than 80 at least 3.5 percent by 2025. awards, Germany places third among the na- tions with the most Nobel laureates. In a glo- With numerous measures and reforms, the balised world in which knowledge is regarded government and higher education institu- as the most important resource, the country, tions took the initiative to advance Germany with its long-standing tradition of research as a hub of knowledge and place it on a more and development, is well positioned in the international footing. The Qualification Ini- international competition for the best minds. tiative adopted in 2008 offers lifelong train- Three major aspects shape this vibrant hub of ing programmes and forms part of this. Other knowledge: the dense network of around 400 success stories include the Excellence Initia- higher education institutions, the four inter- tive, which has spawned a number of inter- nationally renowned non-university research organisations, and strong industrial research. The country has its impressive research nationally oriented graduate schools and clusters of excellence, a policy being con- tinued by the Excellence strategy, the Higher achievements to thank for the fact that within Education Pact 2020, the High-Tech Strategy, the European Union (EU) it is assured a firm the Research and Innovation Pact, and the place in the group of innovation leaders. Inter- Strategy for the Internationalisation of nationally, Germany is in the top group of Science and Research. As Europe’s biggest those few countries to invest some 3 percent of research nation, in 2014 Germany was the
V I D E O A R A P P Education & Knowledge: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid5 As a place to study, Germany is one of the most popular destinations for international students
96 | 97 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E first EU Member State to formulate a strategy the German education system is in prin- for further shaping the European Research ciple relatively well adapted to the needs of Area (ERA). the labour market. 87 percent of adults in Germany have a university entrance quali- Particular attention is paid to an internation- fication or successfully completed voca- al focus. As part of the Bologna Process, tional training. The OECD average is only most higher education courses now lead to 86 percent. Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees, with many of them offered in a foreign language. For international students Germany is one of the five most popular countries in which to study. At about 35 percent, the proportion of students from Germany who spend time studying abroad is high. The number of inter national members of staff at higher education institutions also rose steadily in recent years, and stands at over 10 percent. Many German higher education institu- tions are involved in the “export” of degree courses and the establishment of higher edu- cation institutions based on the German model in the international education mar- ket. In comparison with other countries, I N T E R N E T Research Explorer A research directory containing more than 25,500 institutes → research-explorer.de Research in Germany Major information platform about Germany as a centre of innovation → research-in-germany.org DWIH German Houses of Research and Innovation worldwide → dwih-netzwerk.de Stepping-stone to a successful career: a university degree
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS German Research Foundation The German Research Foundation (DFG) is the main organisation for funding research at higher education and publicly financed institutes. → dfg.de German Rectors’ Conference The German Rectors’ Conference (HRK) is a vol- untary association of state and state-recognised German Academic Exchange Service higher education institutions in Germany. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) The Higher Education Compass database is the largest funding organisation for exchanges provides information about degree courses and of students and academics. It has a global network international cooperation agreements. → hrk.de, hochschulkompass.de with 71 regional offices and information centres. → daad.de, studieren-in.de Leopoldina Alumniportal Deutschland The oldest academy of sciences in the world, The Alumniportal Deutschland networks people the Leopoldina in Halle, has 1,500 members. → leopoldina.org Non-university research organisations who have studied, done research or worked in Germany all over the world. → alumniportal-deutschland.org The Max Planck Society, the Fraunhofer “Schools: Partners for the Future” initiative Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association, and The Federal Foreign Office initiative links the Leibniz Association are the non-university almost 2,000 schools all over the world at research organisations funded by the Federal Government and the states. → mpg.de, fraunhofer.de, helmholtz.de, leibniz-gemeinschaft.de Alexander von Humboldt Foundation The Humboldt Foundation supports cutting- edge scientists and scientific exchange. → humboldt-foundation.de which German is held in high esteem. → pasch-net.de D I G I T A L P L U S More information about all the topics in the chapter – annotated link lists, articles, documents, speeches; plus more in-depth information about key topics such as the Bologna Process, internationalisation, degrees, admissions restriction. → tued.net/en/dig5
98 | 99 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E T O P I C DYNAMIC ACADEMIC LANDSCAPE The German academic landscape is highly diverse: There are famous universities in major cities such as Berlin and Munich, along with excellent higher education insti- tutions in Aachen, Heidelberg, and Karls- ruhe. Medium-sized universities with a strong focus on research and smaller col- leges with an outstanding reputation form the nucleus of the academic world. Whether the international Shanghai Ranking, the QS World University Rankings, or the Times Higher Education World University Rank- ings – each lists between 12 and 20 German universities among the Top 200. Technical University of Munich, Munich’s Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität and Heidelberg University do particularly well. L I S T ∙ Oldest university: Heidelberg University (founded in 1386) ∙ Youngest university: Brandenburg Medical School ( founded in 2014) ∙ Biggest full university: University of Cologne (53,176 students) ∙ Most attractive university for inter- national cutting-edge and young academics: Freie Universität Berlin (2017 Humboldt Ranking) According to the German Rectors’ Confer- ence (HRK), in 2017 students in Germany could choose between 399 higher education institutions (120 universities, 221 univer sities of applied sciences, and 58 art and music acad- emies). Together they offer 19,011 courses. As part of the Bologna Process to create a uni- form European Higher Education Area (EHEA) initiated in 1999, almost all courses now lead to Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. 240 higher education institutions are funded by the state, 39 by the church, and 120 privately. Growing popularity among international students In terms of structure and purpose, the higher education landscape is basically divided up threefold. We distinguish between univer- sities, universities of applied sciences, and academies of art, film, and music. Whereas the classic universities offer a wide range of sub- jects, the technical universities (TU) concen- trate on basic research in engineering and natural science disciplines. In 2006 the nine leading technical universities formed the TU9 Initiative. The universities regard them- selves not only as teaching institutes but as research centres too, and as such even today embody Wilhelm von Humboldt’s education- al ideal of the unity of research and teaching. The universities’ primary objective is to pro- mote young academics, pass on substantiated specialist knowledge, and train academics to
There are 2.8 million students enrolled at around 400 higher education institutions in Germany work and research independently. The 221 strongly practice-oriented universities of ap- plied sciences (FH) are unique to Germany. The first introduction of the right of univer- in 2005 the ratio of freshmen stood at 37 per- cent, over half of young people in Germany now take up higher education. The Federal Training Assistance Act (BAföG) enables sities of applied sciences to award doctorates them to complete a degree course independ- in the State of Hesse, which was previously ently of their family’s financial situation. To- only something universities were allowed to day, almost every second student comes from do, was a matter of much debate. a non-academic home. In winter semester 2016-7 there were 2.8 million students regis- Overall, the number of people engaged in tered at higher education institutions, among academic pursuits is increasing: Whereas them 265,500 who gained their university
100 | 101 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E M A P International students in Germany For some time now, the largest group of inter- national students comes from China. 6,826 France 7,265 Cameroon 7,717 Italy 9,798 Austria 10,204 Russia 34,276 China 6,577 Ukraine 6,837 Turkey 6,994 Iran 14,878 India entrance quali fication abroad – 41 percent national courses: Around 1,400 courses are more than in winter semester 2006-7. now taught in English. In over 730 courses, an international double degree is possible. Today there are more than twice as many The multitude of structured doctoral courses foreigners enrolled at German universities is particularly attractive for international as in 1996. Most international students doctoral students. The fact that for the most come from China, India, and Russia. This part most German higher education institu- puts Germany in the top five most most tions do not charge tuition fees gives them a popular countries for international stu- further advantage. dents. At the same time the German higher educa- tackling the increasing numbers engaged in tion institutions have significantly increased academic study together: In late 2014, as the number of foreign-language and inter- part of the Higher Education Pact 2020, they The Federal Government and the states are
resolved to finance up to 760,000 additional countries, among them many programmes university entrants in years thereafter. For leading to double degrees. Many higher the entire duration of the Higher Education edu cation institutions are involved in the Pact from 2007 to 2023, the Federal Govern- development of German study courses and ment will provide 20.2 billion euros, and the the founding of higher education institu- states 18.3 billion euros. tions based on the German model, which exist in Egypt, China, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Initiatives for more excellence Mongolia, Oman, Singapore, Hungary, and greater internationalisation Vietnam, and Turkey. With the Excellence Initiative, between Increasing foreign mobility among Ger- 2005 and 2017 the Federal Government and man students is likewise being funded. Over the states funded particularly outstanding one third already spend time studying research projects and facilities. In the sec- abroad. In future it is intended that every ond phase of the programme alone (2012– second German graduate of a higher educa- 2017) total funding of 2.7 billion euros was tion institution gain experience abroad provided to support 45 graduate schools, 43 while studying. Scholarships such as the clusters of excellence, and 11 institutional Erasmus+ programme support these valuable strategies spread across 39 universities. The study visits. subsequent Exellence strategy is initially not limited in time and will contribute 533 million euros a year from 2018 onwards. The strategy is intended to help German univer- sities become even better on an internation- al comparison. Promoting excellence clus- ters strengthens internationally competi- tive research areas in universities and uni- versity groups at the project level. If at least two excellence clusters are approved at one and the same university, the latter has a good chance of receiving permanent fund- ing as a univesity of excellence. Internationalisation remains an import- ant topic. The German Rectors’ Conference has identified more than 33,000 inter- national cooperation agreements conclud- ed with parner institutions in around 150 I N F O Programme for Women Professors Women in Germany are nowadays more likely than men to study, and write almost half of all doctoral theses – but less than one quarter of professors are female. This is why in 2008 the Federal Government and the states launched the Programme for Women Professors. With a budget of 200 million euros for the third phase from 2018-2022, the programme is designed to increase the number of women professors and pro- mote equality. As part of the programme, over 500 woman professors have been appointed. → bmbf.de/de/494.php
102 | 103 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E T O P I C AMBITIOUS CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH Science and research are held in high esteem in Germany. Over the past few years, busi- nesses and the government have continual- ly increased their knowledge work budgets. In 2016 the proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research was 2.93 percent. Internationally this put Germany in the top group of countries that invest more than 2.5 percent of their GDP in re- search and development (R&D). In 2016 in Germany a total of almost 92.2 billion euros was spent on R&D. Industry sources just short of 63 billion euros of spending on re- search, with higher education institutions contributing about 16.5 billion and the state around 12 billion euros. The European Commission’s “European Innovation Scoreboard 2017” study places Germany, together with Sweden, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, and Great Britain in the top group of “innovation leaders” in the European Union (EU). The study empha- sises that German industry’s high invest- ments in R&D are exemplary for Europe. Be- tween 2006 and 2016, industrial companies in Ger many increased spending on R&D to about 50 percent. Since 2005, joint R&D spending by government, industry, and higher education institutions has risen by 65 percent, and the plan is to boost the ratio of R&D spending to GDP to 3.5 percent by 2025. German academics’ results are highly pre- sentable: In the Nature Index Global, which evaluates the publication output of re- search facilities and higher education insti- tutions, published in 2018, Germany achieved top marks in Europe. At the inter- national level it is in third place behind the USA and China. D I A G R A M Patents of relevance to global markets in EU countries, per million inhabitants Germany – a high-tech location 657,894 men and women work in research and development in Germany. Government spending on R&D rose in the 2005-17 period by over 90 percent. Germany is one of the world’s top five in terms of investments in this segment. Sweden Finland Germany Denmark EU average 435 423 372 342 154 n o i t a v o n n I d n a h c r a e s e R n o t r o p e R l a r e d e F / F B M B : e c r u o S
Never before has investment in research and development been as high as it is today R&D – human resources by sector Spending on research and development in million € 15.7 % The state and non-profit- making private organisations 21.5 % Higher education e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : e c r u o S 92,174 79,730 67,078 55,879 62.8 % Business 2005 2009 2013 2016
104 | 105 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E Since 2006 Germany has developed a par- ticular innovation tool in the form of its in- terdepartmental High-Tech Strategy. Since then, High-Tech Strategy research projects have prompted a raft of innovations – from energy-saving LED bulbs to a tissue-engin- eered heart valve. The High-Tech Strategy initially had the market potential of specific fields of technology in its sights, whereas dissertation and habilitation theses, 1,000 Bachelor’s and Master’s theses, and 40 start- ups. Germany boasts around 1,000 publicly financed research facilities. Alongside high- er education institutions, it is primarily four non-university research organisations that form the backbone of the research sec- tor. since 2010 it has been focussing on society’s Excellent non-university need for solutions that are fit for the future, research institutions and their realisation. Founded in 1948, the Max Planck Society As a research and innovation strategy, the (MPG) is the most important centre for con- High-Tech Strategy focuses on the major ducting basic research outside universities in challenges of digitisation, health, climate the natural sciences, life sciences, social sci- and energy, mobility, security, social inno- ences, and the humanities. Over 14,000 re- vations, and the future of work. Within the searchers, 47 percent of them international framework of the High-Tech Strategy, 15 scientists, work at the 84 Max Planck Insti- cutting-edge clusters which receive special tutes in Germany and research institutions, funding were selected in three competition including six other institutes in the Nether- rounds. In 2014 an evaluation revealed lands, Luxembourg, Italy, the USA, and Bra- that the cutting-edge clusters had pro duced zil. Since it was established, the Max Planck 900 innovative products, 300 patents, 450 Society has produced 18 Nobel laureates. M I L E S T O N E S 1995 At the Fraunhofer Institute in Er- langen, a team headed by elec- trical engineer and mathematician Karlheinz Brandenburg develops the MP3 procedure for compress- ing audio data, which is nowadays standard throughout the world. 2005 The Excellence Initiative is announced for higher education institutions. The Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation pro- vides funding for non-university research organisations. 2008 Nine years after the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect, which led to the breakthrough of gigabyte hard drives, the German Peter Grünberg and the French- man Albert Fert are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
Since 1970 it has supported over 4,000 inven- tions through to market launch, and registers about 75 annually for patents. The Helmholtz Association conducts cut- ting-edge research in six fields: energy, earth and environment, health, aeronaut- ics, space and transport, key technologies and matter. The Helmholtz scientists con- centrate on highly complex systems and projects. With just under 40,000 staff mem- bers at the 18 independent Helmholtz cen- tres, including the German Aerospace Center (DLR), which has 20 sites in Germany alone, it is Germany’s biggest research or- ganisation. iaries, branches and representative offices in no less than ten European countries, two in each of North and South America, seven Asian, two African countries, as well as in Israel, it has a truly global research reach. The Leibniz Association is the umbrella connecting 93 independent research insti- tutions that range in focus from the natural sciences, engineering, and environmental sciences through economics, spatial, and so- cial sciences to the humanities. A focus common to the 9,900 researchers is knowl- edge transfer to policy makers, industry, and the general public. With 72 institutes, the Fraunhofer-Gesell- schaft is considered to be the largest ap- plication-oriented development organisa- tion in Europe. Its most important fields The German Research Foundation (DFG), Europe’s largest organisation of this kind, is responsible for funding science and research. Alongside its head office in Bonn, the DFG maintains offices in China, Japan, India, Rus- of research are, for example, health and the sia, North and Latin America, and promotes environment, mobility and transportation, cooperation between researchers in Ger- and energy and raw materials. With subsid- many and fellow researchers abroad. 2012 The European Patent Office hon- ours Heidelberg physicist Josef Bille, the inventor of the eye laser, for his lifetime achievement. With almost 100 patents, Bille paved the way for present-day eye sur- gery using lasers. 2014 Stefan Hell, a Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, together with two US researchers receives the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing high resolution fluorescence microscopy. 2017 Almost all courses have been switched over to Bachelor’s and Master’s degree courses. State-regulated degree courses, Medicine and Law are an exception.
106 | 107 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E T O P I C NETWORKING ACADEMIA Globalisation is also presenting the German academic landscape with new challenges. The ability to network knowledge and academics plays a major role here. In this respect, Ger- many has positioned itself well. Almost half of its academic publications are now written by researchers working on international co- operation projects. According to data com- piled for the “Wissenschaft Weltoffen 2018” report, which provides facts and figures on become important network partners for fur- ther collaborations. Many academics from abroad are attracted to Germany by the country’s excellent research infrastructure, which includes the opportun- ity to work on large-scale research facilities, which in some cases are the only ones of their kind in the world. The Helmholtz Association alone operates some 50 large-scale facilities the international nature of studies and re- for a wide range of research fields. Numerous search in Germany, there were 45,858 aca- academics from abroad, who are leading in demic and artistic members of staff, among their field, come to German universities on a them 3,184 professors, working at 399 higher Humboldt Professorship, Germany’s most education institutions – that is almost 12 per- highly endowed research prize, which is worth cent of all employees. Since 2010 the number five million euros and is awarded by the Hum- of foreign academic staff has risen by more boldt Foundation. than one third. The recently simplified visa procedures for academics from non-EU 14,359 German academics have received member states has likewise played a role in funding to conduct research abroad; the most promoting this development. important sponsors are the German Research Foundation (DFG), the European Marie Curie Asia, the Pacific Rim, and West Europe are the Fellowship programme, and in particular the main areas of origin of the foreign academics German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), receiving funding for a stay in Germany: Of the world’s largest funding organisation for late, each accounts for 18 percent of the total student and academic exchange, from which of 34,869 international experts recently sup- almost three quarters of the students and ported. In many cases higher education insti- academics to receive funding were awarded a tutions and research organisations set up scholarship. welcome centres, so as to be able to give the international academics greater support as Germany aims to develop and expand inter- they settle in. Temporary stays by research- national academic collaboration, while at the ers are also regarded as beneficial, for having same time elevating it to the next level of returned to their home countries, they often quality. Amongst other things, the Federal
At German universities and academic institutes, research in international teams is part of everyday life Government’s new strategy to international- ise education, science, and research resolved in 2017 serves as the basis for this. centres outside established scientific hubs. The focus is on promoting international network- ing, world-wide cooperation in vocational training, partnerships with the Global South Ambitious realignment of the and emerging markets, and transnational ef- internationalisation strategy forts to overcome global challenges such as The new internationalisation strategy re- sponds to growing globalisation, digitisation, the advance of the European Research Area, and the emergence of new, global innovation climate change, health, and food security. Strengthening the European Research Area plays a special role in strengthening Germany’s position as a study and research space that is internationally attractive.
108 | 109 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E T O P I C RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC RELATIONS POLICY Academic exchange is a pillar of internation- al cultural and educational policy. In its implementation, key partners of the Federal Foreign Office are the German Academic Furthermore, since 2009 the German Aca- demic Exchange Service has funded the work of four new Centres of Excellence in Russia, Thailand, Chile, and Colombia: these Exchange Service (DAAD), the Alexander network hundreds of international scien- von Humboldt Foundation, the German tists with German research and train young Archaeological Institute (DAI) along with the academics to the highest standards. In Sub- foundations of the political parties with an saharan Africa since 2008 ten expert centres international focus. The Research and Aca- have also been established that symbolise demic Relations Initiative has since 2009 ex- new research capacities and an improved panded its range of proven instruments and quality of education. expanded them to include new strategies. Thus, worldwide, five German Houses of crisis and conflict regions Research and Innovation (DWIH) in Mos- Academic cooperation with cow, New Delhi, New York, São Paulo, and A major focal point of the German foreign Tokyo promote scientific collaboration with cultural and education policy in times of cri- Germany. N U M B E R 183.5 million euros was the amount the Federal For- eign Office contributed to the budget of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in 2017. This is the biggest indi- vidual item, accounting for 34.8 percent in total. The funds are used to run a wide range of foreign cultural and education policy projects and programmes. sis and in regions in conflict as well as in transition countries is to enable access to edu- cation and research and thus create scien- tific and academic prospects. With this com- plex commitment there are hopes that coop- eration in research and higher education can pave the way for political understanding, and that as such crisis prevention and crisis man- agement can frequently be made poss ible. Strengthening academic freedom The numerous crises and conflicts the world has seen in the most recent past result in young people being denied education and aca- demic freedom coming under ever greater pressure. In response to this, the Federal For-
Federal Foreign Minister Maas (in the centre) with alumni of the DAAD “Managers for Syria” Programme eign Office funds the Alexander von Hum- German educational and academic institu- boldt Foundation’s Philipp Schwartz Initia- tions thus create prospects and keep access tive, which enables threatened researchers to open where university and research policy work in Germany. And the German Academic conditions are otherwise tough. The DAAD Exchange Service in 2014 teamed up with has also teamed up with the German Feder- the Federal Foreign Office to launch the al Ministry of Education and Research to “Leadership for Syria” programme, which launch the “Integra – Integration of Refugees ensured 221 Syrian scholarship holders could into Vocational Studies” and “Welcome – study in Germany and graduate. Moreover, Students Support Refugees” programmes. the Federal Foreign Office promotes Sur- Place scholarship programmes for refugees Since 2001 Germany has conducted a trans- in first host countries. Particularly worthy of formation partnership with several Arab mention in this context is the Albert Einstein countries. The idea is to support reform ef- German Academic Refugee Initiative (DAFI), forts at Arab universities through cooper- which is run by the Federal Foreign Office ation projects with German higher education together with the United Nations High institutions. Moreover, the numerous “Good Commission for Refugees (UNHCR); there Governance” programmes aimed at future are also additional Sur-Place scholarships leaders in crisis regions worldwide consti- available through the DAAD. tute a particularly import ant field.
Rosetta probe The probe travelled through space for ten years to install Philae on the Chury- umov-Gerasimenko comet. Philae lander Philae lander Philae was the first device to soft-land on a comet. 6 cranes 9 hoists 110 | 111 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E P A N O R A M A EXCELLENT RESEARCH Rosetta mission The European Space Agency (ESA) researched the history of how our solar system was formed. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) played a major role in building the Philae lander and runs the lander control centre which oversaw the daring landing on a comet, a task never before accomplished. Weight: Dimension: Landing: 100 kg 1 x 1 x 0.8 m 12 November 2014 Neumayer Station III In the eternal ice of the Antarctic, the Alfred Wegener Institute maintains the Neumayer Station III, where researchers can live and work year-round. It is built on hydraulic supports and adapts to changes in snow cover. Mass: Size: Usable space: Laboratory/office: Living quarters: 2,300 tons 68 x 24 m 4,890 m2 on four levels 12 rooms 15 rooms, 40 beds 399 higher education institutes 2.8 million students at and universities higher education institutions € 92.2 billion spent on research and development 586,030 researchers
Sonne research vessel Sonne is the most recent addition to the German research fleet and has been probing the secrets of the deep sea since 2014, primarily in the Pacific and in the Indian Ocean. The high-tech ship is regard- ed as one of the most modern in the world. Cabin deck with 33 cabins for crew members Communal deck with mess and library Work deck 8 labs across 600 m2 Storage deck with cabins for 20 scientists Length: Speed: Max. time at sea: Personnel (max.): Deployment: 116 m 12.5 knots 52 days 40 people Indian Ocean, Pacific Multi-corer It can simultaneously take lots of small samples from the seabed. Water extractor This device takes water samples and measures temperature and depth. Underwater vehicle It is remote controlled and equipped with a video camera and gripper arms. 81 Max Planck Institutes worldwide 72 Fraunhofer Institutes 93 18 Leibniz Association research facilities Helmholtz Association research centres
112 | 113 E D U C A T I O N & K N O W L E D G E T O P I C ATTRACTIVE SCHOOL SYSTEM In Germany responsibility for the school sys- tem is primarily with the 16 federal states. This is why there are different education systems and plans, along with different types of school. The Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (KMK) guarantees the conformity or compar ability of the education programmes and the certificates schools. In general, school attendance is com- pulsory for all children from the age of six for a nine-year period. At the same time the pro- motion of early education at pre-school age and its interlocking with primary schooling is a high-priority issue in education policy. About 20,000 all-day schools now have a firm place in the education system. It is expected that teaching in these schools will spell an awarded. In the 2016-7 academic year there increased level of equal opportunities spe- were almost 11 million pupils attending 42,322 cifically for children from educationally de- generaleducation and vocational schools, with prived backgrounds. 798,180 teachers giving instruction. Further- more there are some 990,402 pupils enrolled at Attendance at state schools is free of charge. 5,836 private general-education and vocational The school system is divided vertically into G L O B A L PISA survey Published in early 2018, the special evaluation of the Pro- gramme for International Student As- sessment (PISA) comparative survey conducted by the OECD revealed that the differences in achievements be- tween socially better-off schoolchildren and those from socially disadvantaged families remains pronounced, as does the statistical link between achieve- ments and social roots. However, the trend is positive. In Germany, equal opportunities have increased in this regard. → oecd.org/pisa three levels: primary education and second- ary education levels I and II. As a rule, all chil- dren attend a primary school, which lasts from Year 1 to 4 (in Berlin and Brandenburg 1 to 6). Subsequently there are three standard curricula: the secondary general school cur- riculum (Years 5 to 9 or 10), the intermediate school curriculum (Years 5 to 10, “Mittlere Reife” or middle school diploma) and the grammar school curriculum (Years 5 to 12 or 13, general higher education entrance diplo- ma; or Abitur). These are taught either in sep- arate types of school or in schools which com- bine two or – as in the case of comprehensive schools – three of the curricula and facilitate switching between the different types of school. The names of these types of school vary depending on the state; only grammar schools (Gymnasium) are known as such in
Some 9 million pupils attend general-education schools all states. In 2017 about 440,000 pupils were awarded the higher education entrance diplo- ma entitling them to study at a university or university of applied sciences. For children with special needs there are separate schools which, depending on the particular disability, provide adequate facilities to help them learn and develop. In line with the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, chil- dren with and without disabilities being taught together is intended to become the rule. In 72 countries the 140 German schools abroad provide an excellent education to around 22,000 German and 60,000 non-Ger- man pupils. Most are run privately, but are supported by the Central Agency for German Schools Abroad (ZfA). Since 2008 the PASCH initiative, ZfA, and Goethe-Institut have been working on forming an even bigger network of German students. Worldwide it links al- most 2,000 schools, with more than 500,000 pupils learning German there.
114 | 115 S O C I E T Y SOCIETY Enriching Diversity ∙ Structuring Immigration ∙ Diverse Living Arrangements ∙ Committed Civil Society ∙ Strong Welfare State ∙ Leisure Time and Travel ∙ Freedom of Religious Worship I N S I G H T ENRICHING DIVERSITY With some 82.6 million inhabitants, Ger- many is the most populous nation in the European Union. The modern, cosmopolitan country has developed into an important immigration country. A good 18.6 million people in Germany have a migratory back- ground. Germany is now among those na- tions with the most liberal immigration rules. According to a 2017 study by the Or- ganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), it is the most popular immigration country after the USA. Most people in Germany have a high stand- ard of living, on an international compari- son, and the corresponding freedom to shape their own lives. The United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) 2016 ranks Ger- many fourth of 188 countries. In the Nation Brands Index 2017, an international survey on the image of 50 countries, Germany tops the scale – also owing to its high values in the areas of quality of life and social justice. Germany considers itself a welfare state, whose primary task is to protect all its citi- zens. German society is shaped by a pluralism of lifestyles and ethno-cultural diversity. New ways of life and everyday realities are chang- ing daily life in society. Immigrants enrich the country with new perspectives and ex- periences. There is great social openness and acceptance as regards alternative ways of life and different sexual orientations. Ad- vances are being made in terms of gender equality and traditional gender role assign- ments are no longer rigid. People with dis- abilities are taking an ever greater role in so- cial life.
V I D E O A R A P P Society: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid6 A high standard of living and great individual freedom shape quality of life in Germany
116 | 117 S O C I E T Y In future, demographic change is set to shape Germany more than virtually any other de- velopment. The birth rate has recently edged up, but is still a comparatively modest 1.5 chil- dren per woman. Life expectancy is at the same time rising. By 2060 the population in Germany is estimated to shrink – depending on the scale of immigration to as low as 67.6 million according to the German Federal Sta- tistical Office. At the same time, the growing number of elderly people is presenting social welfare systems with new challenges. Socioeconomic change in Germany in recent years has led to the emergence of new social risks and stronger social diversification ac- cording to economic living conditions. Al- though in 2017 unemployment was at the same low level as in 1991 (on average 2.5 mil- lion), almost one in five in Germany is at risk of poverty, particularly young people and sin- gle parents. Moreover, social differences con- tinue to exist between east and west. I N T E R N E T Deutsch plus Interdisciplinary network and initiative for a pluralist republic → deutsch-plus.de Make it in Germany Multilingual welcome portal for international skilled workers → make-it-in-germany.com Human Development Reports Where does Germany stand on a global comparison? → hdr.undp.org Demographic change is presenting the nation with major challenges
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS Federal Office for Migration and Refugees The Federal Office offers complete information on residence in Germany and makes decisions relating to applications for asylum. → bamf.de German Islam Conference Since 2006 a long-term dialogue between the German state and Muslims living in Germany known are Forschungsgruppe Wahlen, Forsa, has been in place in the form of the German Emnid, Infratest Dimap, and Institut für Islam Conference (DIK). → deutsche-islam-konferenz.de Demoskopie Allensbach. Federal Employment Agency Federal Volunteer Service The national employment agency is responsible The service is geared towards women and for job placement and employment promotion men who want to get involved in working for the common good – in a social, ecological, or as well as financial compensation. → arbeitsagentur.de cultural context or in sport, integration, or civil protection and disaster response. → bundesfreiwilligendienst.de Foundations Germany has one of the highest densities of foundations in Europe. On a national average, National Action Plan for Integration there are 26.5 foundations for every 100,000 Germany seeks to achieve a high level of integ- inhabitants. The best known is Stiftung Waren- ration, which is why the topic has been a test, which tests and compares products on focal point of the Federal Government’s work since 2005. An integration summit takes behalf of the government. → stiftungen.org place annually. → bundesregierung.de Polling institutes Several established opinion polling institutes regularly survey Germans’ opinions and publish projections on election days. Among the best D I G I T A L P L U S More information on all topics in this chapter – link lists with additional comments, articles, documents; plus more detailed information on terms such as demographic change, social security, intergenerational contract, equal rights, and standard of living. → tued.net/en/dig6
118 | 119 S O C I E T Y T O P I C STRUCTURING IMMIGRATION Germany has emerged as one of the world’s most preferred destinations for migrants. The Organisation for Economic Cooper- ation and Development (OECD) stated in 2017 that Germany remains no. 2 only to the USA as the most popular country for immigration. In none of the 35 OECD mem- ber states has migration risen as fast in re- cent years as in Germany. In 2015 the figure controlling migration processes. This in- cludes people with no prospect of residence in Germany returning to their countries of origin, and support for their reintegration there. In 2016 there were a total of some 10 million foreign passport holders living in Germany. 18.6 million persons had a mi- grant background, including immigrants, foreigners born in Germany, and persons of two million new foreigners set a record. who had a parent who was either an immi- Many of them came seeking protection, grant or a foreigner. The group thus ac- above all wars and conflicts, e.g., in Syria counts for over 22 percent of the total popu- and Iraq, led to many people fleeing their lation. 9.6 million persons with a migrant home countries and seeking shelter else- background were German passport holders; where. In 2016 the figure had dropped to of them, 42 percent have been German citi- about 1.7 million migrants, and has con- zens since birth. A further 33 percent them- tinued to fall since. selves immigrated to Germany as (late) re- patriates; the remaining 25 percent have The Federal Government champions re- taken German citizenship. In 2016 alone al- ducing the causes of flight and irregular mi- most 110,400 foreigners acquired German gration as well as actively structuring and citizenship. D I A G R A M Population according to migration status 2016 Modern immigration society Germany is the second-most popular destination for immigrants in the world after the United States. In 2016 altogether some 18.6 million people in Germany had a migratory background. There are around four to five million Muslims living in Germany – only roughly half of them consider themselves religious, equating to 2.5 to 3 percent of the population. 10 m foreigners 9.6 m people with migratory background and German passport 63.8 m Germans without migratory background e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F n a m r e G : e c r u o S
In Germany 18.6 million people have a migratory background Net immigration according to region of origin 2015 Religious affiliation in Germany Asia EU Africa F M A B : e c r u o S 0 America, Australia, Oceania 250,000 500,000 3.9 % Other 4.9 % Muslims 36.2 % No religious denomination 28.5 % Roman Catholic Church 26.5 % Protestant Church
120 | 121 S O C I E T Y Migrants play a key role in Germany’s social and economic development. The growing need for skilled workers has brought increas- ingly well qualified migrants to Germany Integration as a key element of migration policy Integration policy is a core policy area in and the Federal Government wishes to en- Germany and is considered a task for all of able further immigration amongst others to society. Integration is a service, but also re- counteract the lack of skilled labour resulting quires migrants to commit to making efforts from demographic change. Flanking greater themselves as it can only succeed as a mutual activation of the in-country pool for poten- process. According to the Residency Act, tial employment and of immigration from those foreigners who legally live long-term EU member states, the Federal Government on German territory can lay claim to federal also considers immigration by skilled labour integration services. These services include from third-party countries a way to blunt the language instruction, integration in train- impact of demographic change and help se- ing, work, and education, as well as social in- cure the base of skilled labour. tegration. The goal: to enable such persons to Highly qualified migrants are granted an EU tral measure: an integration course consist- Blue Card, facilitating their entry into the ing of language instruction and an orienta- be part of and play a part in society. The cen- German labour market. Skilled labour from tion course. non-EU countries with recognised vocation- al training in certain bottleneck fields, such More than 30 percent of the 20-34 year-old as the health and care professions, can come foreign adults remain without vocational to Germany to work. To exhaust the potential qualifications. A key goal of the Federal Gov- in full, legislation is planned to interface the ernment: to enhance their participation in regulations on immigration. education. The reform of the citizenship laws M I L E S T O N E S 1955 Strong economic growth leads to a shortage of labour in Germany in the mid-1950s. Recruitment agreements with Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Portu- gal, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia follow. 1964 The millionth migrant worker, called “Gastarbeiter”, is wel- comed to Germany. Recruitment is halted in 1973 with the oil crisis. Now around four mil- lion foreigners are living in Germany. 1990 Immigration increases rapidly in 1990 with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the wars in former Yugoslavia. Moreover, 400,000 people of German origin arrive in Germany from Central and Eastern Europe.
in 2014 introduced dual citizenship. For per- sons who were born and have grown up in Germany after 1990 and are the children of foreign parents, the “obligation” to opt for ei- ther the one or the other citizenship after completing their 23rd year has been abol- ished. Protection for refugees and the politically persecuted The Basic Law guarantees politically perse- cuted persons a right to asylum. In this way, Germany affirms its historical and human- itarian responsibility. In 2015 – as part of the so-called “refugee crisis”, 890,000 arrived in Germany seeking protection, and in 2016 about 746,000 persons applied for asylum. The number of persons seeking protection in Germany has since been falling, with some 223,000 applications for asylum filed in 2017, with the figure approx. 64,000 for January- April 2018. Germany advocates a European solution to the refugee issue based on soli- darity. The Federal Government is at the same time committed to improving refugee protection and supporting refugees in their host countries. G L O B A L OECD study on the integration of immigrants In recent years Germany has succeeded in integrating immigrants ever better in the labour market. Yet deficits are still evident among children of parents born abroad. These are the findings of a comparative study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) entitled “Indicators of Im- migrant Integration 2015”. → oecd.org 1997 Alongside migrant workers, since the mid-1980s ever more asylum seekers have been coming to Germany. From 1997 the Dublin Convention determines responsibilities of the EU states regarding asylum procedures. 2005 The “Microcensus” offers the very first opportunity to survey the migratory background of the population. According to the census, in 2015 every fifth per- son in Germany has a migrant background. 2014 More than 200,000 people apply for asylum in Germany in 2014. For the first time, almost half a million more people move to Germany than leave it in the same period.
122 | 123 S O C I E T Y T O P I C DIVERSE LIVING ARRANGEMENTS Even in the individualised and highly mo- bile world of the 21st century, family is ac- corded a central role. For almost eight out of ten Germans, family continues to be the most important social institution and influ- Same-sex partnerships are among those forms of living that are gaining in signifi- cance. In 2015 there were 94,000 homo- sexual couples living together in Germany – over 50 percent more than ten years before. ential reference group. At the same time Around 43,000 of them live in a registered ideas about the typical family form are partnership, which has since 2001 ensured changing. Less than half the people in that same-sex couples’ relationships are Germany live in a family unit. Despite the legally recognised. In 2017, the Bundestag decline of traditional family structures, in enacted the so-called “Marriage for all”. Ho- 2016 married couples with children under mosexual couples now have the right to a 18 constituted the most common family full marriage and thus, for example, also to form at almost 70 percent. The number of adopt children. mar riages has recently edged up; in 2016 the figure was 410,000. A little more than one in Whereas on the one hand new forms of co- three marriages ends in divorce. The aver- habitation are emerging, on the other the age length of marriages that ended in di- number of one-person households is on the vorce in 2016 was 15 years. Around 46,000 rise. 41 percent of all private households are marriages took place between Germans and single households. While this development foreigners in 2015. is a result of demographic change, with the number of elderly people living alone in- The number of unmarried couples with creasing, more young people are also living children living together is significantly in- alone. creasing. Between 1996 and 2013 the figure doubled to 11.6 million families today; al- Targeted support for families most every tenth couple with a child is un- with parental leave and family allowance married. Families with just one parent are also a growing family form. Today single Structures are likewise changing within parents make up a fifth of all parent-child families. Intergenerational relationships be- constellations and almost nine out of ten of tween parents and children are often good the 2.7 million single parents are women. and as a rule are not characterised by trad- Single parents are often at considerable risk itional or authoritarian upbringing patterns, of enduring poverty; more than half draw but by involvement, affection, encourage- state benefits. ment, and the promotion of independence.
Great importance is attached to family – a great many fathers now also take parental leave The proportion of working mothers has risen to over 66 percent (2006: 61 percent). More than 70 percent of working women with children work on a part-time basis however, especially those whose children are not yet at school; the corresponding fig- The parental leave introduced in 2007 enables more easily to reconcile starting a family with professional further development. Parental leave gives both partners the option of suspending their job for up to three years. During this period they receive family allow- ure for working fathers is just five percent. ance for up to 14 months amounting to 67 In 2014 the employment rate of women in percent of their last net income (minimum of Germany was 74 percent, clearly above the 300, maximum of 1,800 euros) to secure their EU average (68.5 percent). livelihood.
124 | 125 S O C I E T Y New forms of cohabitation, such as in same-sex partnerships, are accepted 75 percent of Germans consider family al- lowance to be a good arrangement; almost all parents take advantage of the benefit. However, four out of five fathers only take cared for by one of 44,000 child minders. The number of nursery places for under- threes has more than doubled since 2006. the minimum period of two months off. It Parental leave, family allowance, and im- continues to be primarily mothers who stay proved overall conditions for day-care for at home for a longer period after having babies and pre-schoolers continue to create children. The Elterngeld Plus family allow- the preconditions for the equal treatment of ance scheme launched in 2015 makes re- women as laid down in the Basic Law. turning to work early on even more worth- Whereas in the education sector young while: Parents who work part-time receive women have not only caught up with, but in financial support for up to 28 months. part overtaken young men (in 2017 53.1 per- cent of those who attained a university en- The number of nursery places for trance qualification were women, 50.5 per- under-threes has more than doubled cent of new students in 2016 were women), there are still differences between the sexes Since 1 August 2013 children have had a as regards pay and career paths: On average legal right to a nursery place upon reaching women working full-time only earn around the age of one. Today every third child un- 79 percent of the salary of their male coun- der three (763,000 children in 2017) attends terparts. They also continue to be under- one of the 55,000 day-care facilities or is represented in managerial roles. Today,
about every seventh board member of DAX corporations is a woman. life for severely disabled youths. Going be- yond the action plan, a federal participation In 2015 the Law on Equal Participation of Women and Men in Leadership Positions entered into force in the private and public sector. Among other things, it stipulates that women must occupy 30 percent of seats on the supervisory councils of companies listed on the stock exchange. Moreover, in its Coalition Agreement in 2018 the Federal Government set the target of equal gender participation in managerial functions in the civil service by 2025. Of late, the proportion of women in the Bundestag has fallen: It is currently at 30.9 percent. That said, until 1983 less than 10 percent of the parliamen- tarians were women. law was enacted in 2017. The elderly constitute a further group whose needs and potential the Federal Government particularly has in mind. More than every fifth person in Germany is aged 65 years or older. Their wealth of experience is con- sidered beneficial to society. Their ways of life have likewise diversified and changed; overall elderly people are considerably more active today than in the past. They are fre- quently also still integrated in the labour market. As meeting places, 540 multigener- ational houses promote an intensive dialogue between old and young, bringing together people of different ages. Inclusion as an important social responsibility The Federal Government also aims to create equal opportunities for people with disabil- ities. It is working towards an inclusive soci- ety in which everyone can participate equal- ly: at school, at work, in leisure time. This requires comprehensive accessibility – and the aim is to remove both obstacles in build- ings, on streets and paths and social hurdles, such as access to the labour market. In 2007 Germany was one of the first states to sign the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, with a national action plan structuring its imple- mentation. Among other things, it envisages intensive preparation measures for working I N F O Shell Youth Study What makes young people in Germany “tick”? What is im- portant to them, how do they spend their spare time, what is their relationship like to their parents and friends? Since 1953 the oil-and-gas company Shell has regu- larly commissioned independent research institutes to paint a portrait of young people. The 17th Shell Youth Study was published in 2015. → shell.de/aboutshell/our- commitment/shell-youth-study.html
126 | 127 S O C I E T Y T O P I C COMMITTED CIVIL SOCIETY Around 31 million Germans are involved in voluntary work in their spare time, thus assuming responsibility for society. This commitment is often long term – one third of volunteers has been active for ten years. Almost 60 percent of those polled in the Federal Government’s 14th Volunteers Sur- vey spend up to two hours a week on volun- tary work. Together with charities, church- es, cooperatives, aid organisations, non- profit organisations, and private initiatives, education, science, and culture. The five largest foundations under private law in terms of expenditure are the Volkswagen Foundation, Robert Bosch Stiftung, Bertels- mann Stiftung, Hans Böckler Foundation, and WWF Deutschland. Community foundations are strongly on the rise, foundations in which several citi- zens and firms act as joint funders to sup- port local or regional projects. The first the members of more than 600,000 associ- foundations of this kind were established in ations form the backbone of this “third sec- 1996 – in mid-2016 there were already more tor”. Civil society refers to the section of than 300 community founda tions recog- society that is not shaped by government nised by the Association of German Foun- or party politics, but gets involved in social dations. Civil commitment has slightly in- and political issues voluntarily and pub- creased in recent years, but is shifting more licly. strongly away from the larger associations and towards small, self-organised groups Foundations in particular have become and alternating projects. Currently there increasingly significant. With more than are numerous people in Germany involved 21,000 incorporated foundations under civil on a voluntary basis in local initiatives sup- law, the classic legal form of a foundation, porting refugees. Germany has one of the highest numbers of foundations in Europe. Since the turn of the Involvement in parties, trade unions, and millennium some 13,500 civil-law founda- non-governmental organisations tions have been established; more than half of all foundations of this kind in existence Socio-political involvement in parties, trade today. On a national average, there are 26.5 unions, and NGOs enables people to help shape foundations for every 100,000 inhabitants. things on a strategic and political level. Here Taken together, all foundations have assets volunteering opens a door to intensive demo- amounting to approximately 68 billion cratic participation. The major established euros. They spend around 4.3 billion on organisations however are finding it increas- charitable causes, traditionally social issues, ingly difficult to get volunteers on board.
Environmental protection is an issue many people actively work for in their spare time There is particular potential for volunteer work in the 14 to 24-year age bracket. The in- terest in volunteer services shows that young adults are willing to get involved in society. The Federal Volunteer Service has been in place since 2011. It is open to all age groups and complements the model, in existence for over 50 years, of the voluntary social year for young people and young adults. In early 2018, more than 43,000 such volunteers were serving. It is also possible to do voluntary work abroad, for example through the International Vol- unteer Service of the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, the Weltwärts programme of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, or the Kulturweit volun- teer service by the German UNESCO Com- mission in cooperation with the German Federal Foreign Office.
128 | 129 S O C I E T Y T O P I C STRONG WELFARE STATE Germany has one of the most comprehen- sive welfare systems. As in other developed democracies, in Germany too social spend- ing represents the largest individual item of public spending. Around 918 billion euros was committed to public social spending in 2016, equating to a share of 29 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The tradition of the state welfare system goes back to the age of industrialisation in Germany in the second half of the 19th century and is as- sociated with then Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. It was under Bismarck that article 20, paragraph 1 and article 28 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Ger- many. Politicians and social players must continually renegotiate which form it takes in a dynamic process; particularly demographic change necessitates adjustments. Social network to protect against existential risks Today a tightly woven web of state health, pen- sion, accident, nursing care, and unemploy- ment insurance protects citizens against the firstly mandatory health insurance for consequences of existential risks and threats. workers was introduced in 1883, and with Moreover, the social network encompasses a the social legislation that was expanded in basic income for pensioners and those perma- the following years the basis was created nently unable to work as well as fiscal benefits for an orientation on the welfare state. The such as the family allowance system (child principle of the welfare state is embedded in benefit, tax advantages). Following a further N U M B E R 32.6 m is the number of employees subject to mandatory social insurance contributions that the Federal Employment Agency counted in December 2017. This equates to 75 to 80 percent of all employees. The figure does not include those not subject to mandatory social insurance contribu- tions, i.e. civil servants, the self-employed, unpaid family workers, and mini-jobbers. → statistik.arbeitsagentur.de increase in early 2018, families receive 194 eu- ros monthly for the first and second child, 200 euros for the third, and 225 euros for addi- tional children. The Grand Coalition formed in March 2018 intends to increase child benefit again in 2019, namely by 25 euros. The Coali- tion Agreement also envisages anchoring chil- dren’s rights in the Basic Law. The pension package that entered into force in 2014 especially improves the situation of elderly people. The reform saw the intro- duction, among other things, of the full pension from 63 years of age and the so- called mother’s pension, intended to serve
With a monthly child allowance, the state specifically promotes families – pre-school childcare provision has been broadened as an acknowledgement of mothers’ work raising children. Women who raised chil- dren born before 1992 did not have the childcare options available to parents today and as such fewer opportunities in the world of work. The mother’s pension acknowledges women’s work in raising children. Since July 2014 around 9.5 million women (and a small number of men) have received over 300 euros more in pension payments per child per year. Furthermore, since 1 July 2014 people covered by the pension insur- ance scheme who have paid in for 45 years have been entitled to retire at 63 without their pension being subject to deductions. By the end of February 2018 there had been some 982,000 applications. Health insurance cover is a legal require- ment in Germany. Medical care is guaranteed by a broad spectrum of hospitals, practices, and rehabilitation clinics.
130 | 131 S O C I E T Y P A N O R A M A LEISURE TIME AND TRAVEL Popular leisure time activities Of 100 people polled in Germany in each category, the following number engage in the activities at least once a week: Watching TV 97 Listening to the radio Telephoning from home 90 89 71 72 Reading newspapers/magazines Thinking Surfing on the Internet 73 Telephoning while out and about 68 71 Spending time with their partner Sleeping in 65 64 Talking about important things Computer 61 61 Listening to a CD/MP3 file 54 52 Taking time to pamper oneself Drinking coffee/ eating cake The amount of leisure time Germans have The amount of time Germans have on a working day to do things they enjoy: Less than 1 hour 1 to 2 hours 2.5 to 4 hours 4.5 to 6 hours More than 6 hours 3 % 18 % 38 % 17 % 23 % 31 million Germans engage in voluntary activities in their leisure time 43,000 people take part in the Federal Volunteer Service programme 24 million people in 95 % of private Germany are members households have at least of a sports club one mobile phone
The length of holidays Average duration of travels in days: 14.8 13.4 13.0 12.2 12.5 12.3 12.1 13.0 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2017 Most popular holiday destinations In 2017, of 100 travellers from Germany, the following number chose as the location of their main holiday (circled: difference from 2014): 3 Scandinavia +0.6 13.1 Long-haul destinations +1.8 -0.2 2.2 USA/Canada 2.8 Benelux countries +0.7 +0.3 1.8 Poland +0.8 2.9 France -0.7 13.7 Spain +0.1 2.9 Northern Africa Source: Foundation for Future Studies -0.1 3.9 Austria +0.3 3.3 Croatia +0.8 7.7 Italy +0.4 3.1 Greece -3.1 3.6 Turkey 258 euros 58 is what every household spends of 100 Germans go per month on leisure time, culture, and entertainment on a trip each year lasting at least five days 1,193 euros is the average amount Germans spend on their main vacation 34.2 % of Germans stay in Germany for their main vacation
132 | 133 S O C I E T Y T O P I C FREEDOM OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP The religious landscape in Germany is shaped by increasing plurality and secular- isation. 55 percent of the German popula- tion confesses to one of the two major Christian faiths, organised in the 27 Cath- olic dioceses and German Bishops’ Confer- ence and the Protestant regional churches under the umbrella organisation Evangel- ical Church in Germany (EKD). The Catholic Church, with around 24.6 million members in 11,500 parishes, is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church headed by the Pope. The EKD is a commun- ity of 20 independent evangelical regional churches of the Lutheran, Reformed, and L I S T ∙ Catholic diocese with the most members: Archdiocese of Cologne with roughly two million Catholics ∙ Evangelical regional church with the most members: Hanover with more than 2.6 million Protestants ∙ Major mosques: Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque/Mannheim; Şehitlik Mosque/ Berlin, Fatih Mosque/Bremen ∙ Largest Jewish community: Jewish Community of Berlin (10,000) United confessions. With around 23 million members, they encompass the majority of evangelical Christians. About 36 percent of the population does not profess to a partic- ular faith. As a consequence of the ageing membership and high levels of people leav- ing the Christian churches, the number of believers is falling. In 2016 alone, 162,000 people left the Catholic Church alone. The Evangelical Church reported 190,000 per- sons leaving. The low number of believers in east Germany is particularly striking. Islam is gaining in significance for religious life owing to migration. There are an esti- mated 4-5 million Muslims in Ger many from 50 different nations, but there is no central survey. Significant Muslim commu- nities have formed in many cities. The Ger- man Islam Conference (DIK) established in 2006 provides an official framework for interaction between Muslims and the Ger- man state. Jewish life in Germany, which was entirely destroyed after the Holocaust, has been re- vived since the end of the Cold War thanks to migrants from the former USSR. Today around 200,000 Jews live in Germany. Just under 100,000 of them are organised in 105 Jewish communities, which have a broad re- ligious spectrum and are represented by the Central Council of Jews in Germany, found- ed in 1950.
In Germany the Basic Law guarantees religious freedom; there are more than 2,000 mosques Germany has no state church. The basis of the relationship between state and religion is the freedom of religion enshrined in the Basic Law, the separation of church and state in the sense of the state’s religious neutrality and the right to self-determination of the religious communities. The state and religious commu- nities co operate on a joint basis. The state helps fin ance nurseries and schools sponsored by religious communities, while churches levy a church tax, collected by the state, to fin- ance social services. Schools must offer reli- gious studies as a regular subject (limited in Berlin and Bremen). Islamic religious instruc- tion is currently being expanded. Additional teachers are being trained in order to offer Muslim children and young people who go to school in Germany religious instruction.
134 | 135 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A CULTURE & THE MEDIA Vibrant Nation of Culture ∙ Innovative Creative Industry ∙ Intercultural Dialogue ∙ Cosmopolitan Positions ∙ Rapid Change in the Media ∙ Exciting World Heritage Sites ∙ Attractive Language I N S I G H T VIBRANT NATION OF CULTURE There is no one single German culture. There small and medium-sized states and free cit- are many German cultures which simultan- ies, there are, amongst other things, around eously coexist despite what are often aston- 300 theatres and 130 professional orches- ishing differences; they are intertwined, re- tras (which are in some instances paired pelling and attracting one another. To speak with radio stations). Furthermore, 540 art of Germany as a nation of culture in the 21st museums with outstanding international century is to talk of a mature and continu- collections form an unprecedented gallery ously developing living organism whose scene. Germany is a world leader in terms of variety is astounding, unsettling, indeed often sheer variety in cultural facilities. The pop- taxing. This can in part be attributed to the ulation generally welcomes the fact that country’s federal traditions: After all, Ger- theatres, orchestras, and mu seums are pre- many was not a unified state until 1871. Not dominantly public institutions run by the only the Federal Republic of Germany found- federal states. Against the backdrop of pub- ed in 1949, but also the Germany that was re- lic budget constraints, socio demographic unified in 1990 has consciously upheld the change, and shifts in the media landscape federal traditions and left the federal states (such as digitisation) the cultural system is firmly responsible for cultural policy. It was currently in a phase of upheaval and reori- not until 1998 that there was a minister of entation. state in charge of culture and the media at- tached to the Federal Chancellery. One of the Germany’s reputation as a major cultural effects of Germany having arisen from many nation rests on the great names of the past,
V I D E O A R A P P Culture & The Media: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid7 The future centre for dialogue between the world’s cultures: the Humboldt Forum is under construction in Berlin
136 | 137 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A such as Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms in music, Goethe, Schiller, and Thomas Mann in literature. Moreover, there are exceptional examples of German Modernists in all art genres. which will open in 2019 as a cultural light- house in the rebuilt palace in central Berlin. Characterised by cosmopolitanism, it should facilitate an international exchange of knowl- edge and intercultural dialogue. It bears noting that the country has gone through a process which began earlier in other European nations. Germany has embraced outside influences on the basis of its own trad- itions and developed a new narrative. Young I N T E R N E T artists from migratory backgrounds have found expressive means, both poetic and mu- sical, to respond to the encounter and fusion of different cultural backgrounds. The regional artistic and cultural centres have morphed into vibrant centres of new German culture in the increasingly blurred grey area between low-brow and high-brow culture. Together they create a force field, a re- flection of Germany in concentrated form. There is also the Humboldt Forum project, Kulturportal Deutschland Website on selected events and cultural policy issues → kulturserver.de Litrix Multilingual information portal to present German literature worldwide → litrix.de Filmportal Platform on movies in German → filmportal.de There are many venues in Germany for the performing arts
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS German Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media The German Federal Government Commis- sioner for Culture and the Media, Monika Grüt- ters, is, as Minister of State, a member of the Federal Chancellery. Her tasks include promot- ing cultural institutions and projects that are of national significance. → bundesregierung.de Goethe-Institut Haus der Kulturen der Welt Haus der Kulturen der Welt in Berlin is a centre of international cultural exchange and a forum Goethe-Institut e. V. is Germany’s globally active cultural institute. Its brief is to promote a knowledge of the German language abroad, for contemporary debates. → hkw.de nurture international cultural cooperation, Deutscher Kulturrat and paint a comprehensive picture of Germany Deutscher Kulturrat e. V. is the acknowledged today. → goethe.de Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations The Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations umbrella association of German cultural associ- ations, with 258 federal cultural associations and organisations as its members. → kulturrat.de (ifa) dedicates itself world-wide to interaction Central Agency for German Schools Abroad on art, civil society dialogue, and providing The Central Agency for German Schools Abroad information on foreign cultural policy. → ifa.de Kulturstiftung des Bundes The Kulturstiftung des Bundes promotes art and culture that falls within the ambit of the Federal Government. One focal point is supporting innovative programmes and projects in the international context. → kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de (ZfA) promotes and advises 1,200 schools abroad, including 140 German schools abroad. → auslandsschulwesen.de D I G I T A L P L U S For details on all the topics in this chap- ter – commented lists of links, articles, documents, speeches; and for further information on keywords such as the Federal Government’s responsibility for culture, Kulturstiftung des Bundes, Deutscher Filmpreis, documenta. → tued.net/en/dig7
138 | 139 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A T O P I C INNOVATIVE CREATIVE INDUSTRY Culture and the creative industry are among the economy’s most innovative sectors. In Germany, their contribution to total eco- nomic output (gross value added) is steadily increasing and today is already on a par with major sectors of industry, such as mechanical engineering. Sales by the creative industries, which now embrace some 253,000 com panies and in which 1.6 million people work, to- talled around 154 billion euros in 2016. The Federal Government intends specifically to self-employed freelancers, and small or mi- cro-enterprises. They are primarily private- sector based – meaning not first and fore- most in the public sector (museums, theatre, orchestras) or part of civil society (arts, as- sociations, foundations). Through the con- sistent promotion of start-ups, in many cit- ies a raft of service providers has arisen in the fields of design, software, and games in particular. Specifically, the software and games industry relies on interfacing differ- strengthen the cultural and creative indus- ent segments, such as film, video, music, text, tries, further developing support schemes and animation, to tap the sector’s potential and financing options to this end. and in 2016 this spawned total sales of 29 billion euros. The Berlin-Brandenburg re- The common core of work in culture and gion leads the way, with a good 200 compa- the creative industries is the creative act un- nies. No other area has such a concentrated derlying artistic, literary, cultural, musical, gaming infrastructure, including the rele- architectural, and creative content, works, vant colleges. That said, Frankfurt am Main, products, productions, and services. Struc- Hamburg, Leipzig, Cologne, and Munich all turally speaking, the sector is defined by have distinct creative industry clusters. D I A G R A M Steady growth: companies in the cultural and creative sectors Sector with great potential The cultural and creative industries bring traditional segments of business together with new technologies and modern forms of ICT. In Germany they include 12 sub- segments: the music business, bookselling, the art market, the film industry, radio, the fine arts, architecture, design, the press, advertising, software/games, others. 219,376 232,770 244,290 253,200 202,049 2004 2006 2008 2011 2018 t m a s e d n u B s e h c s i t s i t a t S / I W M B : s e c r u o S
Berlin is considered the start-up capital, among young entrepreneurs, too Highly varied book market: many new publications Well placed in the middle of the table: gross value added by sector in billion € 5.7 % Travel 10.9 % Schools & learning 9.8 % Non-fiction 11.1 % Science 14.5 % Self-help books 6 1 0 2 , s l e d n a h h c u B n e h c s t u e D s e d n e r e v n e s r ö B i : e c r u o S 31.5 % Literature Chemicals industry Energy utilities 85,486 New publications Culture and the creative sector Financial service providers 16.5 % Books for children and young people Mechanical engineering Automobile industry 42.9 47.2 64.0 71.0 93.8 129.6 s i t a t s e D / I W M B : s e c r u o S
140 | 141 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A T O P I C INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE Alongside classical diplomacy and foreign economic policy, cultural relations and edu- cation policy form the third pillar of German foreign policy. Its key objectives include laying strong foundations for relations to other countries and fostering dialogue among people and peoples by means of exchanges and cooperation in the fields of culture, edu- cation, and scholarship. The foreign cultural Current initiatives include promoting a va- riety of cultural programmes, such as exhi- bitions, guest performances by German the- atres, supporting literature and films, and projects in dialogue with the Islamic world as well as kulturweit, a scheme that enables young people from Germany to spend a year doing voluntary service abroad. policy thus paves the way for mutual under- The programmes and projects rest on a standing, an important bedrock for policies comprehensive understanding of culture committed to the peaceful settlement of differences. Other tasks include promoting The Federal Foreign Office only implements the German language around the world, show- the smallest part of its cultural relations pol- casing Germany as a country with a successful icy itself. It primarily entrusts these tasks and diverse cultural scene, and communicating to intermediary organisations active as en- a contemporary image of Germany abroad. tities under private law and each with its L I S T ∙ Largest art museum: Hamburger Kunsthalle ∙ Largest orchestra: Gewandhausorchester Leipzig ∙ Largest movie theatre: Cinemaxx in Essen ∙ Largest theatre stage: Friedrichstadtpalast (Berlin) ∙ Largest festival hall: Baden-Baden own special focus. They include the Goethe- Institut, Institute for Foreign Cultural Rela- tions (ifa), the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the German Commission for UNESCO, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (on foreign education policy, please turn to the chapter on Education and Knowledge). The work of the cultural intermediaries is defined in agreements on goals, but they are largely free to structure the programmes and projects themselves. The Goethe-Institut has a total of 159 institutes in 98 different coun- tries. It promotes a knowledge of the German language abroad and nurtures international cultural cooperation. The ifa dedicates itself
Old manuscripts from Timbuktu (Mali) are being preserved and researched thanks to Federal Foreign Office funding mainly to cultural dialogue – in the form of exhibitions and conferences. The current trends in cultural dialogue: digital cultural and intermediary services and the new oppor- tunities for interactive participation. In all the projects, since the 1970s foreign cultural policy has emphasised a holistic, non-elitist concept of culture that does not limit “culture” to “art”. That said, the focus is not just on German culture. The preservation of cultural heritage programmes supports upholding import- ant historical cultural assets worldwide. For example, from 1981 to 2016 the Federal Foreign Office helped fund some 2,800 pro- jects in 144 countries, including the pres- ervation of the Timbuktu manuscripts in Mali, the creation of a digital registry of cultural assets for Syria, the digitisation of traditional music in Cameroon, and the restoration of Borobudur Temple in Indo- nesia.
142 | 143 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A T O P I C COSMOPOLITAN POSITIONS In German society, which is steeped in plural- ism, there can just as little be one predominant cultural trend as there can be one metropolis that towers over all the others. Buttressed by the country’s federal structure, Germany tales of themselves and the lives of their par- ents and grandparents, unlike the stories told by citizens who have lived in Germany for centuries. Whether they were born in Ger- many or not, as a rule they are not influenced is typified by the simultaneity of many ex- by some hands-on experience of immigration, ceptionally different things from different but by the experience of cultural hybridity. periods, indeed even countervailing or com- This life in various cultural contexts engen- peting currents – in theatre, film, music, the ders new forms of artistic enquiry into society visual arts, and literature. and draws up new front lines for negotiating rights, a sense of belonging, or participation. There is a clear trend in theatre: The number New narratives arise that encourage society to of premiere performances by contemporary view itself in a new light and define how Ger- playwrights has soared. They run the entire man culture is perceived abroad. gamut of current forms of the performing arts, in which traditional spoken theatre mingles A beacon of such art that celebrates trans-cul- with pantomime, dance, video, play acting, turalism is Shermin Langhoff’s Post-Migrant and music, giving rise to dense performance- like, post-drama stage work. The sheer variety presented each year at the May Berlin Theater- treffen can be read as the polyphonic response to the issues raised by a complex reality. Alongside the cultural mainstream driven by the centre-ground in society new things are arising, increasingly from marginalised sec- tions of society, and these ideas are penetrating and enriching the established world of theatre. “Postmigrant” is the buzzword describing the phenomenon, reflecting that Germany is an immigration society as is visible in many cities, especially in Berlin. Millions of Germans with a migrant background are the second or third generation of their family living here; they tell I N F O German Digital Library The German Digital Library (DDB) is, closely networked with the European virtual library Europeana.eu, a portal cataloguing Germany’s cultural heri- tage. This encompasses cultural treas- ures such as manuscripts, historical films, music, and digitised books. The library already contains more than 18 million items. The long-term goal is for up to 30,000 cultural and aca- demic institutions from all spheres and disciplines to be networked within the DDB. → deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de
Yael Ronen’s production of Common Ground at the Maxim Gorki Theatre made a real splash Theatre in Berlin’s Maxim Gorki Theatre, the city’s smallest state theatre, but one with a long-standing tradition. Langhoff’s shows reach out well beyond traditional theatre- goers and have successfully attracted a new and primarily young clientele; they reflect an addresses the war in the Balkans, and “The Situation” about the Middle-Eastern conflict, both produced by Israeli director Yael Ronen, at the Berlin Theatertreffen. Theatre is thus now doing what has long since taken place in the worlds of Pop music and literature. Here, opaque process that is constantly shifting too, the biographies of the artists reflect soci- and becoming more differentiated. In 2015 ety’s diversity, presenting exciting fusions of and 2016, the Gorki Theatre was invited to widely differing styles to offer new perspec- present the plays “Common Ground”, which tives. In Pop, a whole array of international
144 | 145 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A styles of music, ranging from Balkan beats, African-American sounds, and Turkish Saz Rock to American Hip Hop and even Techno, blends with other strands or electronic ele- ments that are considered “typically Ger- man”. As in other countries, Rap is a point of Post-migrant themes play a key role in contemporary literature For many years, as a matter of course there have been important authors with migrant back- grounds among the most successful authors identification for young people from migrant writing in German. They include Navid Kerma- families, with languages often blurring in the ni, who in 2015 won one of Germany’s most il- process. lustrious cultural prizes, the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade, and is known for both his The son of Turkish immigrants, director fiction and his books on religious tolerance, as Fatih Akin has made it right to the top. In well as Katja Petrowskaya, Sherko Fatah, Nino 2018 he won a Golden Globe for his drama Haratischwili, Saša Stanišić, Feridun Zaimoglu, “In the Fade”, starring German Hollywood and Alina Bronsky, to name but a few. Their actress Diane Kruger. In his films, Akin does books, which reflect among other things on not shy away from sensitive issues of living their experiences with their Iranian, Russian, together and in conflict, and has milieus and and Turkish backgrounds, are eagerly read and clichés collide. Post-migrant Germany is not their works transport the specific themes and necessarily cosy, but it is exciting and dy- experiences of migration into the heart of soci- namic. ety, where they are regularly discussed. Fatih Akin’s drama “In the Fade” starring Diane Kruger won a Golden Globe in 2018
M A P Important cultural awards in Germany Golden Bear The Berlin International Film Festival: one of the world’s key film festivals next to Venice and Cannes. A Golden Bear and several Silver Bears are awarded. 1 3 Berlin Preis der Leipziger Buchmesse Preis der Leipziger Buchmesse is a book prize awarded to a new publication in German. 2 Leipzig Frankfurt am Main 4 5 Darmstadt Deutscher Filmpreis Featuring prize money totalling almost 3 million euros, Deutscher Filmpreis is the best-endowed German cultural prize. German Book Prize A jury chooses the best novel written in German that year. Georg Büchner Preis The Georg Büchner Preis is the pre-eminent literature prize for Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The visual arts in Germany are likewise cos- mopolitan and international. As the statistics of the new intake at German art academies and colleges shows: Since 2013, the annual number of foreign students enrolling for the Berlin Art Week, when all over the city venues present the latest artistic ideas. Indeed, Ger- many’s capital is today undoubtedly one of the world’s largest hubs where contempor- ary art is produced. This is demonstrated first semester has exceeded that of Germans. every two years at the Venice Biennale, and Today Berlin, with about 500 galleries and its not just in the German Pavilion there: A large many spaces for presenting artistic positions, number of the international artists exhibited is considered the metropolis for young, con- in the city on the lagoon state that they live temporary art that features strongly in the in Berlin. 12345
146 | 147 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A T O P I C RAPID CHANGE IN THE MEDIA Freedom of the press and the media is guar- anteed at a very high level in Germany, and is protected by the constitution. Article 5 of the Basic Law states: “Every person shall have the right freely to express and disseminate his opinions in speech, writing, and pictures, and to inform himself without hindrance from generally accessible sources. … There shall be no censorship.” The Press Freedom Index compiled by the NGO Reporter ohne Gren- zen ranks Germany 16th of 180 countries in 2017. There is a diversity of opinions and a pluralism of information. The press is not controlled by governments or parties, as pri- vate-sector media corporations are respons- ible for it. The public broadcasters based on the British model (ARD, ZDF, Deutschlandfunk) as corporate bodies paid for from licensing fees and as public-sector entities are the sec- ond pillar of the media world, which rests on the dual principle of private and public-sector entities that has essentially remained un- changed since the foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. As of 2015, the monthly license fee has been 17.50 euros. Since the 1980s, there has been a whole raft of private radio and TV broadcasters in the mar- ket. The most import ant TV news pro- grammes are Tagesschau and Tagesthemen, both on ARD, heute and heute journal on ZDF, and RTL aktuell. In Berlin alone, which is among the 10 top media cities worldwide, there are 900 accredited parliamentary corres- pondents and 440 foreign correspondents from 60 different countries on the ground. The many different media voices include around 300 daily newspapers, mainly distrib- uted regionally, 20 weeklies, and 1,600 mass- market magazines. After China, India, Japan, and the USA, Germany is the fifth-largest newspaper market worldwide. Per publication M I L E S T O N E S 1945 After the end of Nazi rule, in Germany initially newspapers may only appear under Allied licence. In the US zone of occupation the first licence is awarded on 1 August 1945 to the Frankfurter Rundschau. 1950 The six West German broadcast- ing houses agree in Bremen to join forces to form the “Arbeits- gemeinschaft der öffentlich- rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland,” or ARD broadcaster. 1984 In Ludwigshafen the Programm- gesellschaft für Kabel- und Satellitenrundfunk, or PKS for short, starts broadcasting. This marks the birth of private TV channels in Germany.
Social media are fundamentally changing the structure of the media, communications patterns, and the public sphere 1995 The first German newspaper, namely the leftist/liberal taz, goes online only six years after the foundation of the World Wide Web. After its go-live, the membership of the digitaz community surges. 1997 About 4.1 million German citizens over the age of 14 use the new online access channels at least occasionally. In 2014, the figure rises to around 55.6 million, or 79.1 percent of the over-14s in Germany. 2018 Some 21 million people in Ger- many use Facebook on a weekly basis. 1.8 million regularly use Twitter, 5.6 million Instagram. The leading social media site is WhatsApp, with 40 million weekly users.
148 | 149 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A Germany’s largest newsroom: the central editorial desk at Deutsche Presse-Agentur (dpa) in Berlin day, 16.1 million dailies and five million publication Bild are considered the most- weekly or Sunday papers are sold (2016). quoted media. The leading nationwide newspapers are Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allge- At the same time, the sector is undergoing a meine Zeitung, Die Welt, Die Zeit, taz, and profound structural change. For the last 15 Handels blatt, and all stand out for investig- years, newspapers have been regularly losing ative research, analysis, background, and on average 1.5-2 percent of their paid printed comprehensive commentary. News magazine editions. They are increasingly rarely reach- Spiegel/Spiegel Online and the yellow-press ing younger readers and with circulation D I A G R A M Rapid development: more than 55 million people online in Germany Everyday digital life Mobile Internet access and the use of mobile handhelds are surging in Germany. With the increase in mobile accessing of data, technological re- quirements likewise grow as regards network infrastructure. Studies also show that the number of Internet users has for some time now only been edging up. 49 38.6 18.3 62.4 7 1 0 2 y d u t s e n i l 4.1 1997 2000 2006 2010 2017 n o F D Z / D R A : e c r u o S
figures and advertising revenues dwindling G L O B A L Deutsche Welle Deutsche Welle (DW) is Germany’s foreign radio service and a member of ARD, the public radio and TV broadcasting association. DW broadcasts in 30 different languages, provides TV programming (DW-TV), radio, Internet services, and supporting media de velopment through the DW Akademie. The German News Service provides free news in four languages for interested individuals and media. → dw.com are in difficult waters. Over 100 newspapers have responded to the free-for-view Internet by introducing pay-on-demand systems. The publishing industry is in flux – amongst other things because meanwhile almost 800,000 newspaper copies sold daily are distributed digitally and the number of digital subscrip- tions is continually rising. Digitisation of the media world, the Internet, the rampant growth in mobile handhelds, and the triumphs of social media have signifi- cantly changed how the media are used. To- day, 62.4 million Germans over the age of 14 (89.8 percent) are online. More than 50 mil- lion people use the Internet daily. On average, every user spends about 165 minutes a day online; more than every second person surfs participate in opinion-forming discourse. from a mobile handheld. Moreover, over half Whether the interactive Internet nodes where of all Internet users are members of a private people gather also form the foundations for a community. The digital revolution has gener- viable future digital journalism remains to be ated a new concept of the public sphere; social seen. Journalists from all fields are living up media and the Bloggosphere mirror an open to their professional responsibility to counter society of dialogue in which everyone can fake news and deliberate disinformation. Multiple access: how Germans use the Internet Daily media usage ” m u k i l b u P r h i 66 % Smartphone/ mobile phone 6 1 0 2 y d u t s e n i l n o F D Z / D R A : e c r u o S 57 % Laptop 38 % Tablet TV Radio Internet 44 % Computer, PC Newspapers 174 min. 160 min. 149 min. 17 min. d n u n e d e M i “ s e i r e s y d u t s / 7 1 0 2 y d u t s e n i l n o F D Z - D R A : e c r u o S
150 | 151 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A P A N O R A M A EXCITING WORLD HERITAGE SITES Cologne Cathedral This masterpiece of Gothic architecture was built down through many generations – from 1248 to 1880. Wartburg Reformer Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German inside the protection of its walls. Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex This complex in Essen where operations were discontinued in 1986 stands for the develop- ment of heavy industry in Europe. Bauhaus The Bauhaus sites in Dessau and Weimar stand for the famous early 20th-century design college. 157 m Height of Cologne Cathedral 1 km2 Area of the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex 44 km2 Area covered by ancient beech forests 2,300,000 Visitors to Museum Island 17212518
North Rhine- Westphalia 34 25 17 5 1 7 Saarland 27 Rhineland- Palatinate 15 2 16 10 13 41 Baden- Wurttemberg 24 Hessen Thuringia 12 37 3 30 Bavaria 31 33 Bremen 33 43 Schleswig- Holstein 8 26 40 Hamburg 34 26 Mecklenburg-West Pomerania 34 28 Lower Saxony 6 35 39 Saxony- Anhalt 34 Berlin 22 32 9 Brandenburg 23 11 14 18 19 38 34 21 19 44 18 20 29 Saxony 42 36 4 Frontiers of the Roman Empire The Saalburg castle within the Roman frontier wall in Hessen has been reconstructed. Ancient Beech Forests Five beech forests in Germany are included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Cultural heritage sites Natural heritage sites 1 Aachen Cathedral 2 Speyer Cathedral 3 Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square 4 Pilgrimage Church of Wies 5 Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl St Mary’s Cathedral and St Michael’s Church at Hildesheim Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier 6 7 Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin 8 Hanseatic City of Lübeck 9 10 Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch 11 Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar and Upper Harz Water Management System 12 Town of Bamberg 13 Maulbronn Monastery Complex 14 Collegiate Church, Castle and Old Town of Quedlinburg 15 Völklingen Ironworks 16 Messel Pit Fossil Site 17 Cologne Cathedral 18 Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar and Dessau 19 Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg 20 Classical Weimar 21 Wartburg Castle 22 Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin 23 Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz 24 Monastic Island of Reichenau 25 Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen 26 Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar 27 Upper Middle Rhine Valley 28 Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen 29 Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski 30 Frontiers of the Roman Empire 31 Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof 32 Berlin Modernism Housing Estates 33 Wadden Sea 34 Ancient Beech Forests of Germany 35 Fagus Factory in Alfeld 36 Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps 37 Margravial Opera House Bayreuth 38 Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe 39 Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey 40 Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus 41 Le Corbusier’s architecture (Weissenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart) 42 Caves and Ice Age art in the Swabian Alb region 43 Archaeological Border complex of Hedeby and the Danevirke 44 Naumburg Cathedral 2,000 Half-timbered buildings 550 km Length of the in Quedlinburg Roman frontier wall 10,000 1,073 Different animal and plant species in the Wadden Sea UNESCO World Heritage sites worldwide 3034
152 | 153 C U L T U R E & T H E M E D I A T O P I C ATTRACTIVE LANGUAGE German is one of the 15 or so Germanic lan- guages, a branch of the Indo-European lan- guage family. About 130 million people in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxem- bourg, Belgium, Liechtenstein, and South Tyrol (Italy) speak German natively or as a regu- larly used second language. It is therefore the most widely spoken native language in the EU and one of the ten most widely spoken languages. The 2015 survey on ‘German as a foreign language worldwide’ refers to a total of 15.4 million people currently learning German as a second language. The number of people globally who actually speak German as a foreign language can be roughly estimat- ed at about 100 million. One reason why German’s importance is dis- proportionally high relative to the number of N U M B E R 16 major dialect associations exist in Germany, including, for example, Bavarian, Alemannic, Westphalian, Brandenburg, and Northern Low German. The regional differences in spoken language are fairly large; in general the importance of dialects is dwindling. people speaking it stems from the country’s economic strength, which makes the lan- guage very desirable. This desirability is helping drive an active policy of spreading the German language: by supporting lan- guage teaching facilities in Germany and abroad, providing scholarships or making academic offers to mobile international stu- dents. It is also clear from the significantly increasing interest in German, especially in the rising powers of China, India, and Brazil as well as in other fast-growing areas of the Asian continent, where in places demand has quadrupled since 2010. Important institutions for learning German include the 140 German schools outside Germany and the almost 2,000 schools that lay emphasis on German lessons, which are included in the Federal Foreign Office’s initiative, Schools: Partners for the Future (PASCH). In 2016, around 278,000 people took language courses at the Goethe-Institut, which offers German as a foreign language and language tests in more than 90 countries. With free e-learning programmes, videos, audio and print material, Deutsche Welle offers online German courses for beginners and advanced speakers. By contrast, the relevance of German as a language of international scholarship is es- sentially declining. The global share of art- icles in German in scientific publications is
The German language is the most-frequently spoken mother tongue in the European Union only one percent in bibliographic databases. German enjoys greater import ance as an academic language in the humanities and social sciences. Non-German-speaking scholars very rarely publish in German, whereas German-speaking scholars publish extensively in English. Yet on the Internet, German plays an important role. With re- gard to the most-used languages based on websites, German ranked third, far behind English, but only just behind Russian. Globalisation is exerting pressure on all in- ternational languages, and this is serving to appreciably further strengthen the position of English as the world language. Nonethe- less, German will remain an important inter- national language.
154 | 155 W A Y O F L I F E WAY OF LIFE Land of Diversity ∙ Urban Quality of Life ∙ Sustainable Tourism ∙ Sporting Challenges ∙ Attractions in Berlin ∙ Leisurely Enjoyment I N S I G H T LAND OF DIVERSITY A love of nature and cities alike, healthy food and gourmet restaurants, a strong sense of tradition and a cosmopolitan mind- set – measuring 357,000 square kilometres, Germany is the fourth largest country in the European Union (EU) after France, Spain, and Sweden. From the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps in the south, Germany is geo- graphically sub-divided into the North Ger- man Lowlands, the Mittelgebirge ridge, the Central Uplands in southwest Germany, the South German Alpine foothills, and the Ba- varian Alps. From north to south the great- est distance is 876 kilometres, from east to west 640 kilometres. Germany is one of the countries with the highest standards of living in the world. The 2016 United Nations’ Human Develop- ment Index (HDI) puts Germany fourth out of a total of 188 countries. With 82.6 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous country in the EU and one of the most densely populated; around 77 percent of its inhabitants live in densely and highly popu- lated areas. Around 30 percent of the popu- lation resides in big cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, of which there are 80 in Germany; Munich has 4,713 people per square kilometre, Berlin 4,012. Experts be- lieve the ongoing trend of growth and inno- vation is reflected in the renaissance of cit- ies, and forecast that by 2030 the number of inhabitants in major cities will have surged – with considerable consequences for the housing market, inner-city mobility, and infrastructure. In particular, the 18-to-24- year-old age bracket is showing a pro- nounced willingness to move to cities. This urbanisation makes Germany part of a global trend. The cities are also great tourist attractions – Berlin especially is developing
V I D E O A R A P P Way of life: the video on the topic → tued.net/en/vid8 Sylt, the fourth-largest German island, offers kilometres of sandy beaches along the North Sea coast
156 | 157 W A Y O F L I F E into a real magnet and is currently setting one visitor record after another. In the European rankings for the absolute number of overnight stays, Berlin, with its 3.7 mil- lion inhabitants, places third behind Lon- don and Paris. themselves as vegetarians; 1.3 million said they live a vegan lifestyle. Gourmets, how- ever, do not miss out. This is thanks to the 300 restaurants in Germany with one or more stars in the 2018 Guide Michelin – more than ever before. At the same time, however, this longing for urban life contrasts with a strong call for things regional – in particular when it comes to what Germans eat. The organic food industry is firmly established in Ger- man agriculture, generating sales of organ- ic products worth around 10 billion euros annually. Indeed, 29,174 organic farms, al- most 10 percent of agricultural enterprises, cultivate 7.1 percent of agricultural land. The organic products are supported by cer- tifications (around 75,000 products boast the German state organic seal), extensive consumer protection laws, and comprehen- sive marking obligations. In 2016, some 8 million people in Germany referred to I N T E R N E T Destatis Data, facts, and official statistical studies, compiled by the German Federal Statistical Office in Wiesbaden → destatis.de OECD Comparison of the material living con- ditions and the quality of life in 38 countries based on the Better Life Index of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) → oecdbetterlifeindex.org Frankfurt am Main, home to the European Central Bank (ECB), is the only major German city to boast a skyline
C O M P A C T PLAYERS & ORGANISATIONS German National Tourist Board For over 60 years the German National Tourist Board (DZT) has been working internationally on behalf of the Federal Government to promote Germany as a travel destination. In 2018, the DZT is focussing on hospitality and food culture in the theme year “Culinary Germany”. In 2019 the focal theme will be “100 Years of the Bauhaus”. → germany.travel German Wine Institute The German Wine Institute (DWI) is the German Olympic Sports Confederation German wine industry’s communications and The German Olympic Sports Confederation marketing arm. Its main task is to promote (DOSB) is the umbrella organisation of German sport. It has more than 27 million members the quality and sales of German wine. → deutscheweine.de in around 91,000 sports clubs. → dosb.de Gut leben in Deutschland In 2015, the Federal Government conducted a German Football Association dialogue with the people of Germany about With over 7 million members, the German their view of the quality of life in the country. Football Association (DFB) is the world’s largest It resulted in 46 quality-of-life indicators, which national sports federation – and the only foot- are continually updated and enable “living well” ball association where both the men’s and the women’s team have won the World Cup. → dfb.de to be measured. → gut-leben-in-deutschland.de International Sports Promotion International Sports Promotion has been part of the Federal Republic of Germany’s cultural relations and education activities abroad since 1961. Since then it has supported 1,400 projects in over 100 countries. It primarily promotes sports for women, youth, and people with dis- abilities, in an effort to advance integration. → dosb.de/sportentwicklung/internationales D I G I T A L P L U S More information about all the topics in the chapter – annotated link lists, articles, documents; plus more detailed information about terms such as Ger- man cuisine, wines from Germany, Bauhaus architecture, wellness holidays in Germany. → tued.net/en/dig8
158 | 159 W A Y O F L I F E T O P I C URBAN QUALITY OF LIFE Good jobs, a clean environment, low crime rates, lots of leisure-time and cultural at- tractions, good transport links: German cities frequently boast precisely these fea- tures. In a 2018 study aimed at evaluating the quality of life in 231 large cities conduct- ed by the Mercer consulting firm, seven Ger- rates, Germany comes second from last. Forty-five percent of households live in their own four walls. The majority opt for rented accommodation, which has trad- itionally always been preferred. Almost 14 percent of people view the cost of living as a “heavy financial burden”. On average, man cities place in the Top 30. With Munich such costs absorb 27 percent of monthly in- (3rd place), Düsseldorf (6), and Frankfurt am comes. For this reason the Federal Govern- Main (7), three actually make the Top Ten. ment has paved the way for rent caps aimed Berlin (13), Hamburg (19), Nuremberg (23), at preserving social diversity in regions and Stuttgart (28) are also well up the list. In where the housing market is under pres- Germany there are 80 large cities (more than sure. In the event of a change in tenant, new 100,000 inhabitants) and 614 medium-sized rents are capped at a max. 10 percent higher cities with between 20,000 and 99,999 in- than for a comparable flat – but there are habitants; 75.5 percent of people now live in ex ceptions. In 2018 the Federal Govern- cities. ment has set itself the goal of building 1.5 million new flats and houses in the context The demand for urban living space has led of a “housing offensive” and allocated two to a sharp rise in rents in the case of first- billion euros for social housing construc- time lets, and in the price of real estate. tion. Moreover, families now receive a state With regard to European home ownership subsidy when buying their own home. D I A G R A M Consumer spending by private households in Germany How Germans live More than half of the people in Germany live in rented accommodation, not in their own four walls. 66 percent of all residential buildings are single-family dwellings, only 6 percent are larger structures with seven or more flats. 35 percent of flats and houses are 100 square metres in size or bigger, only 5.5 percent of flats are smaller than 40 square metres. 23 % Other items 4 % Clothing, shoes 10 % Leisure time, entertainment, culture 35 % Accommodation, energy, accommo- dation maintenance 14 % Transportation 14 % Food, drink, tobacco 7 1 0 2 e c fi f O l a c i t s i t a t S l a r e d e F : e c r u o S
Urban quality of life is in vogue, which is why rents are rising in cities Share of the population living in cities Flats in Germany by number of rooms Germany USA Canada Great Britain Australia 75.5 % 81.8 % 82.0 % 82.8 % 89.6 % 25.4 % 4 rooms 21.7 % 3 rooms 40.3 % 5 and more rooms 3.3 % 1 room 9.2 % 2 rooms 7 1 0 2 s e c fi f O . t a t S e t a t S d n a l a r e d e F , k n a B d l r o W : s e c r u o S
160 | 161 W A Y O F L I F E T O P I C SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Germans like to travel. In their own country as well, indeed especially there. After all, for years now the Alps, the coasts, the North German lakes, nature reserves, and river valleys have headed the list of destinations. Germans have long since shared a passion for the diversity of the countryside, and for sightseeing, sport and relaxation options with a continually growing flow of visitors 121.5 million by 2030. The positive trend in tourism to Germany began immediately af- ter German Reunification back in 1990 and has since led to a steady rise in the number of overnight stays by foreign guests – by around 88 percent. A good 75 percent of all foreign guests come from Europe, primarily from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Great Britain, and Italy. 7.5 percent come from the and tourists from abroad. Germany has for USA. years been gaining popularity as a tourist destination. At the same time the number of visitors from Asia and Africa is rising. From 2015 to 2016, In 2017, the number of overnights rose to their market share rose by some 8 percent in 459 million; guests from abroad accounted each case. In Europe, since 2010 Ger many has for 83.9 million (18.2 percent), which was a been second in the league of most popular record. Tourism experts forecast a rise to destinations among Europeans – after Spain L I S T ∙ Biggest airport: Frankfurt am Main ∙ Biggest railway station: Leipzig ∙ Biggest port: Hamburg ∙ Biggest trade fair grounds: Hanover ∙ Biggest spa resort: Wiesbaden ∙ Biggest public festival: Oktoberfest ∙ Biggest amusement park: Europa-Park, Rust and ahead of France. Seasonal distribution reveals peak figures from June to October during the high season, and regional distri- bution very high numbers for Bavaria, Berlin, and Baden-Württemberg. Germany is an at- tractive country to visit for young people aged between 15 and 34, who contribute to the positive trend in tourism. A successful trade fair and congress centre In 2017, for the 13th time in a row, Germany maintained its position as the no. 1 con- ference and congress centre in Europe. In the international congress centre rankings, Germany is in second place behind the USA.
An attractive Alpine panorama: The many foreign tourists who visit Bavaria appreciate the idyll In 2016, some 113,000 international exhib- itors and 3.2 million international guests came to trade fairs in Germany, which is regarded as the most important trade fair location worldwide. the “magic cities” of Berlin, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Hanover, Leipzig, Cologne, Munich, Nuremberg, and Stuttgart are the magnets for foreign guests. First and foremost among them is Berlin, In particular which in 2016 recorded 12.7 million visitors, and over 31 million overnights. In terms of absolute figures for overnight stays the city is in third place in Europe after London and Paris. According to a survey conducted by the German National Tourist Board the top international visitor attractions include classics such as Neuschwanstein Castle and
162 | 163 W A Y O F L I F E Cologne Cathedral. The numerous UNESCO World Heritage sites, among them Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam and Classical Weimar, are also popular. In addition, events such as the Oktoberfest in Munich, with around 6.2 million visitors the world’s biggest public festival, also attract visitors. A football sta- dium is also on the list of tourist magnets: the Allianz Arena, a masterpiece by Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron, and the Bayern Munich home ground. covering 70,000 kilometres, for example the Iron Curtain Trail (1,131 kilometres) or the 818-kilometre-long German Limes Cycle Route. Those looking for a cheap night’s ac- commodation will find plenty of opportun- ities, for example in one of the 500 youth hostels, 130 of which are family youth hos- tels, or on one of the 2,919 campsites. Feel-good holidays and environmentally friendly travel Like culture, movement in general plays a big role in Germany’s appeal. Around 200,000 kilometres long, the network of hiking trails alone offers extremely good conditions and magnificent views, for ex- Wellness is an important topic in Germany. It includes such unusual features as the river sauna in the Emser Therme thermal complex, as well as the numerous feel-good facilities in spa resorts such as Bad Wörishofen and Bad ample on routes through the national parks Oeynhausen, with its Wilhelminian-era ar- or against the backdrop of the magnificent chitecture. In Germany, there are over 350 spa Alps. On top of this there are more than 200 resorts, which use a label recognised by the well-established long-distance cycle trails “Deutscher Heilbäderverband”, the German I N F O Climate In Germany a warm, moderate rainy climate with westerly winds pre- vails. Major fluctuations in temperature are rare. There is rainfall throughout the year. Mild winters (2 °C to –6 °C) and not too hot summers (18 °C to 20 °C) are the rule. In 2014, the mean annual temperature reached a record 10.3 °C, which was 2.1 degrees above the long- term average of 8.2 °C for the inter- national reference period 1961 to 1990. 2014 was 0.4 degrees warmer than the previous warmest years 2000 and 2007. → dwd.de Association of Spa Resorts. The quality of the medical treatment and support also attracts numerous guests to Germany. Ever more frequently, travellers are not on- ly taking care of their own wellbeing, but are also paying attention to the environ- ment. In Germany, the demand for ecological tourism and sustainable travel is growing. Organic farms offer holiday rooms, there are 104 nature parks and 17 biosphere re- serves, in which great importance is at- tached to sustainable development and bio- diversity. In order for everyone to be able to move around easily in Germany countless initiatives ensure that the disabled too can travel without hindrance.
M A P Travelling within Germany Hamburg Miniatur Wunderland Hanover Berlin Düsseldorf Cologne Frankfurt am Main Leipzig Dresden Nuremberg Stuttgart Europa-Park Munich Neuschwanstein Castle The top destinations The 11 “magic cities” have a market share of around 43 percent of all overnight stays by foreign guests in Germany. Berlin lies clearly ahead of Munich, Frankfurt am Main, and Hamburg. 56 percent of overnights by foreigners are in cities with 100,000 inhabitants. The most important airports The three biggest airports in Germany are in Frankfurt am Main with 64.5 million passengers, Munich with 44.6 million, and Düsseldorf with 24.5 million in 2017. The most popular attractions According to a survey by the German Na- tional Tourist Board, in 2017 the three most popular attractions among foreign tourists were Miniatur Wunderland in Hamburg, the Europa-Park theme park in Rust, and Neuschwanstein Castle. Attractive tourist destinations island of Rügen attract tourists from Ger- in the former East Germany many and abroad. The five federal states that formerly made Since 1993, the number of overnight stays in up East Germany play a major role in tour- eastern Germany has more than doubled. ism. After Reunification, tourism proved With a market share of 5.1 percent, in 2017 to be an opportunity for many regions in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the north eastern Germany to put themselves on a east just pipped the state of Bavaria in the sound economic footing. Areas of country- south (with 4.9 percent) in terms of holiday side such as the Spreewald biosphere re- trips of more than five days’ dur ation. No mat- serve, cultural centres with long-standing ter how much one has already seen – as a travel trad itions such as Dresden and Weimar, and destination Germany still has more to dis- Baltic seaside resorts such as Binz on the cover, experience, celebrate, and marvel at.
164 | 165 W A Y O F L I F E T O P I C SPORTING CHALLENGES Germany is a country of sports enthusiasts and indeed a successful sporting nation. In the Olympic Games all-time medals table Germany, with 1,757 medals (as at 2018), places third behind the USA and the Russian Federation. Around 28 million people in Germany are members of one of the roughly 91,000 sports clubs. Alongside their sporting duties, the clubs also assume important so- cial and inclusive roles. Particularly as re- gards youth work and integration they rein- force values such as fair play, team spirit, and tolerance. Given the rising internation- alisation of the population, the work done by sports clubs is becoming ever more im- portant with a view to the social integration of migrants. Around 60,700 clubs have members with a migratory background in their teams. Overall it is safe to assume that approximately 1.7 million people with a mi- gratory background are members of a sports club. Nonetheless, the group of people with a migratory background is still under-repre- sented in organised sport. The German Olympic Sports Confeder ation’s “Integration through Sport” programme be- lieves immigration enriches German sport. One of the programme’s focal areas is working with groups which have previously been un- der-represented in sport, for example girls and women. Together with the “Bundesliga-Stif- tung” and the German Football Association, the Federal Government has also launched an inte gration initiative. This finances projects for integrating refugees in sport. The project “1:0 für ein Willkommen” – 1:0 for a Welcome, which the German national team supports, and its continuation “2:0 für ein Willkommen” have since 2015 provided financial assistance to some 3,400 clubs that work with refugees on a voluntary basis. M I L E S T O N E S 1954 Germany wins the World Cup for the first time in Switzerland (beating Hungary 3:2 in the final). The “Miracle of Bern” becomes a lasting symbol of post-War Germany. 1972 The Olympic Games in Munich are overshadowed by Israeli athletes being taken hos- tage and murdered by Palestinian terrorists. 1988 Steffi Graf becomes the first female tennis player to win the Golden Slam, i.e., all four Grand Slam tournaments plus an Olympic Gold medal, in a single calendar year.
At the 2018 PyeongChang Paralympics, monoskier Anna Schaffelhuber won two Gold medals 2006 With its official motto “A Time To Make Friends”, the World Cup becomes an unforgettable “sum- mer fairy tale” and puts Germany in a highly favourable light abroad. 2014 Having shone throughout the tournament in Brazil, the German football team once again be- comes World Champion (beating Argentina 1:0 in the final). It is Germany’s fourth World Cup title since 1954. 2018 Figure skaters Aljona Savchenko and Bruno Massot win Olympic Gold and the World Champion- ships in pairs skating for Germany – both with a world record in the free programme.
166 | 167 W A Y O F L I F E The German Olympic Sports Confeder- ation is an umbrella organisation for Ger- man sport and sees itself as Germany’s larg- est civic group. It promotes top-class and grassroots sport. More than 20,000 of the 91,000 sports clubs it represents were founded after German Reunification in The Bundesliga, the top-flight league in German football, is the shining light in German sport. Internationally it is regarded as one of the strongest leagues. In the 2016-7 season, the 306 matches played between the 18 Bundesliga teams were watched live in the stadiums by around 12.7 million specta- 1990. Founded in 1900, the German Foot- tors, an average of 41,500 per game. Bayern ball Association is also one of the 98 mem- Munich is the measure of all things in Ger- ber organisations. The seven million mem- man club football. In April 2018 the club bers in 25,000 football clubs represent an won the German championship for the 28th all-time high in the Association’s history, time, on top of which it has lifted the Ger- and it is the world’s largest national sports man Football Association Cup 18 times, and association. in 2001 and 2013 was victorious in the Champions League. With more than 290,000 Alongside sport climbing, modern pent- members, it is the club with the most mem- athlon, and boxing, one of the sports with bers in the world. the most new members is triathlon. Club membership more than doubled between The German men’s team has won the 2001 and 2015. In 2017, almost 85,000 men World Cup four times and the European and women were active in this sport. Championships on three occasions, and is 63,000+ runners: The J.P. Morgan Corporate Challenge in Frankfurt is the biggest road race of its kind in the world
the flagship of German football. Having won the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, Germany heads the FIFA World Rankings. Trained by Joachim Löw, the team is considered to be tactically flexible, and stands for a modern interpretation of the game. The national team squad includes several players with a migratory background, such as Jérôme Boateng, Sami Khedira, and Mesut Özil. Sporting recognition and success in various disciplines Alongside football, popular sports are gymnastics, tennis, shooting, athletics, handball, and riding. But other sporting events are also highly successful, for ex- ample the J. P. Morgan Corporate Challenge in Frankfurt am Main. Raced by some 63,000 participants from 2,419 companies, the corporate charity run is regarded as the biggest event of its kind in the world. German sport is a success story in many re- spects. This is also thanks to the promotion of sport by Stiftung Deutsche Sporthilfe. It supports around 4,000 athletes from almost all Olympic disciplines, traditional non- Olympic sports, as well as sports for disabled and deaf people. Supporting athletes who have dis abilities is likewise an important as- pect. And here too, having now won a total of 1,871 medals (2018), athletes from Ger many have been highly successful at in ternational competitions and the Paralympic Games. The International Sports Promotion pro- gramme of the Federal Foreign Office is a G L O B A L Anti-Doping Initiatives With the founding of the World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999 and the commitment of all stakeholders to a zero-tolerance policy towards doping, the need arose for a uniform set of rules that applied world-wide. This was implemented for the first time in 2003 with the foundation of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) and updated in 2015. A new version is due to come into force on 1 January 2021. → wada-ama.org firm part of its cultural relations and education activities abroad, and has already supported more than 1,400 short and long- term projects in various sports in over 100 countries. One example is a long-term pro- ject promoting women’s football in Uru- guay, which trains female coaches and en- ables women and girls better access to sport, particularly football. In this and many other ways, German sport is striving to reach levels of excellence as a means of crisis prevention and understand- ing between peoples, and as an ambassador for more fairness, tolerance, integration, peaceful competition, and performance.
168 | 169 W A Y O F L I F E P A N O R A M A ATTRACTIONS IN BERLIN E L D C K J A B G F H I Berlin Districts A. Mitte B. Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg C. Pankow D. Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf E. Spandau F. Steglitz-Zehlendorf G. Tempelhof-Schöneberg H. Neukölln I. Treptow-Köpenick J. Marzahn-Hellersdorf K. Lichtenberg L. Reinickendorf Mitte 2 3 4 5 9 8 6 7 10 1 Friedrichshain- Kreuzberg Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church Off Kurfürstendamm, the landmark of western downtown, an anti-war memorial. Victory Column There are 285 steps up to the viewing platform, from where there is a fantastic view of the city. Reichstag Building Home of the Deutscher Bundestag, the German parliament. The glass dome is a real magnet for visitors. 3,712,000 inhabitants 12,970,000 tourists 2,300,000 visitors to Museum Island 175 museums and collections 123
Brandenburg Gate Every Berlin tourist knows the Brandenburg Gate, the symbol of German Reunification. Potsdamer Platz The face of modern Berlin. The complex was developed after the fall of the Wall on an enormous piece of waste land. Checkpoint Charlie The Wall is no longer, but the former military check- point still rekindles mem- ories of the Cold War. East Side Gallery The elaborately painted remains of the Wall are nowadays the world’s longest open-air gallery. Gendarmenmarkt One of the most beau- tiful squares in Europe boasts no less than three Classicist-style monumental structures. Museum Island The five major museums house some of Europe’s finest collections. TV Tower on Alexanderplatz Berlin’s TV Tower on the “Alex” can be seen from afar, and from the sphere there is a view of the entire region. 496,471 visitors to the Berlin Film Festival 4,500,000 visitors to the zoo 4,660 restaurants 402 bars and discotheques 45678910
170 | 171 W A Y O F L I F E T O P I C LEISURELY ENJOYMENT Since the beginning of the millennium, German wine has seen a veritable renais- sance internationally, which has much to do with the term “Riesling miracle” and is to a large extent embodied by a young gen- eration of vintners who focus more on high quality than high profits. The long growing countries, one of the medium-sized wine-pro- ducing nations; in 2017 production stood at 8.1 million hectolitres. Organic wine has a market share of between four and five percent. The German wine growing areas are some of the most northerly in the world. Apart from Saxony and Saale-Unstrut they are primarily season and comparatively low summer heat located in the south and southwest of the ensure German wines are refined and do country. The three biggest growing areas are not have a high alcohol content. Rhinehessen, the Palatinate, and Baden. Al- most 140 types of grape are grown, whereby German wines are grown in 13 areas in which, some two dozen are of major significance for across a gross area of around 102,000 hectares, the market, primarily the white Riesling and a large variety of wines typical of each particu- Müller- Thurgau varieties. There is a split of lar region are produced. Given the amount of about 64 percent white wine and 36 percent land used, and a grand total of about 80,000 red wine, whereby pinot noir and Dornfelder vineyards, Germany is, compared with other are the most important varieties of red grape. N U M B E R 300 restaurants in Germany, more than ever before, were awarded one, two, or even three Guide Michelin stars in 2018. Eleven restaurants were include in the top 3-star category. Germany thus maintained its position as the European country with the most 3-star establish- ments after France, the country of gourmets. → bookatable.com/de/guide-michelin Germany is also a beer-loving country. Ger- man beer is appreciated primarily on ac- count of what is in some cases a centuries- old brewing tradition practised by small family and monastery breweries. The Beer Purity Law of 1516, the world’s oldest food law, applies to all German beers without ex- ception. It states that apart from water, hops, and barley, no other ingredients may be used. Between 5,000 and 6,000 sorts of beer are produced in Germany, most of them are Pilsner beers; overall, however, consump- tion is falling. There is no clear picture for eating habits in Germany. On the one hand, many consumers
Big-city flair: In Berlin, as well as in other German cities, there is a lively restaurant scene are becoming increasingly health and fit- Alongside top-class, fusion cuisine, and chefs ness-conscious, and are opting for balanced increasingly catering to vegetarian and vegan nutritional concepts. On the other, mega- dishes; old vegetable varieties such as pars- trends such as mobility and the ever greater nip, turnip, and Jerusalem artichoke are number of different personal lifestyles are enjoying a renaissance. They are the pillars clearly influencing eating and drinking of the current boom in all things healthy, habits. seasonal, regional, and the taste of home regions. A young generation of chefs is re- The German restaurant scene is as vibrant as interpreting classic dishes and spicing them it is diverse – and is one of the best in Europe. up with global influences.
172 | 173 F A C T S A B O U T G E R M A N Y PICTURE CREDITS Cover p. 3 p. 4 p. 16 p. 18 p. 19 p. 20 p. 21 p. 23 p. 24 p. 25 p. 27 p. 31 p. 33 pp. 34 – 35 p. 39 p. 40 p. 41 p. 44 p. 49 p. 51 pp. 54 – 55 p. 57 p. 59 p. 60 p. 61 p. 63 p. 65 p. 67 p. 71 p. 73 pp. 74 – 75 p. 77 p. 79 p. 80 p. 81 querbeet/Getty Images; Anita Back/laif drbimages/Getty Images Westend61/Getty Images Jesco Denzel/Bundesregierung; Steffen Kugler/ Bundesregierung; Jörg Carstensen/dpa; Bundesverfassungsgericht picture-alliance/Bernd von Jutrczenka Bundesregierung (19) DB Stiftung Weimarer Klassik/dpa; picture-alliance/arkivi; http://www.jsbach.net/bass/elements/bach-hausmann.jpg. Lizenziert unter Gemeinfrei über Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org picture-alliance/akg-images; picture-alliance/akg-images/ Beethovenhaus Bonn; Buddenbrookhaus Lübeck; picture-alliance/akg-images/Erich Lessing; picture-alliance/dpa; picture-alliance/Thomas Muncke picture-alliance/Daniel Kalker; ullstein bild - Boness/IPON Steffen Kugler/Bundesregierung/dpa Soeren Stache/dpa Nikada/Getty Images RONNY HARTMANN/AFP/Getty Images David Baltzer/Zenit/laif Einhorn Solutions Westend 61; Tim Brakemeier/dpa picture-alliance/Wiktor Dabkowski picture-alliance/Kay Nietfeld 2013 Bundeswehr/Bier picture-alliance/Photoshot EPA/VALENTIN FLAURAUD Einhorn Solutions Joerg Boethling Ole Spata/dpa; Franz Bischof/laif Frank Rumpenhorst/dpa Jan Woitas/dpa Jörg Modrow/laif picture-alliance/Geisler-Fotopress Alexander Koerner/Getty Images Thomas Köhler/Photothek via Getty Images The New York Times/Redux/laif Einhorn Solutions Ute Grabowsky/Photothek via Getty Images Frank Krahmer/Photographer‘s Choice; Matthias Balk/dpa picture-alliance/Keystone Angelika Warmuth/dpa Oliver Berg/dpa Krisztian Bocsi/Bloomberg via Getty Images Uwe Anspach/dpa Einhorn Solutions Wolfgang Stahr/laif; David Fischer/dpa Andreas Rentz/Getty Images impress picture/ullsteinbild Thomas Ernsting/laif Thomas Koehler/Photothek via Getty Images DAAD/Konstantin Gastmann p. 83 p. 85 p. 89 pp. 90 – 91 p. 95 p. 96 p. 99 p. 103 p. 107 p. 109 pp. 110 – 111 Einhorn Solutions p. 113 p. 115 p. 116 p. 117 p. 119 p. 123 p. 124 p. 127 p. 129 pp. 130 – 131 Einhorn Solutions Boris Roessler/dpa p. 133 HILMER & SATTLER und ALBRECHT – Jan Pautzke; p. 135 Janetzko/Berlinale 2013 Arno Burgi/dpa Rainer Jensen/dpa Marko Priske/laif picture-alliance/abacapress picture-alliance/Eventpress Hoensch picture-alliance/ZUMA Press Malte Christians/dpa Tim Brakemeier/dpa Thomas Trutschel/Photothek via Getty Images Altrendo Images; Thomas Kierok/laif Gregor Hohenberg/laif Andrea Enderlein Martin Stoever/Bongarts/Getty Images Sean Gallup/Getty Images Michael Löwa/dpa picture-alliance/Andreas Franke Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images p. 136 p. 137 p. 139 p. 141 p. 143 p. 144 p. 147 p. 148 pp. 150 – 151 Einhorn Solutions p. 153 p. 155 Goethe-Institut/Anastasia Tsayder/dpa Sabine Lubenow/Getty Images; Dagmar Schwelle/laif Dagmar Schwelle/laif Daniel Biskup/laif Thomas Linkel/laif Christian Kerber/laif picture-alliance/Alexandra Wey/KEYSTONE Christoph Schmidt/dpa p. 156 p. 157 p. 159 p. 161 p. 165 p. 166 pp. 168 – 169 Einhorn Solutions p. 171 Georg Knoll/laif
INDEX A Alliance 90/The Greens 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Alternative for Germany (AfD) 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Art academy 98 – 99 Association of German Chambers of Commerce and Industry (DIHK) 58 – 61 Automotive industry 66 – 69 B Bachelor’s degrees 94 – 97 Baden-Württemberg 6 – 7 Basic income 128 – 129 Basic Law 6 – 9, 28 – 29 Bavaria 6 – 7 Beer 170 – 171 Berlin 6 – 7, 34 – 35, 168 – 169 Berlin Wall 36 – 37 Berlinale 142 – 145 Biodiversity 92 – 93 Biosphere reserve 92 – 93 Birth rate 114 – 115 Bologna Process 94 – 97 Brandenburg 6 – 7 Bremen 6 – 7 Bundesliga 164 – 167 Bundestag 14 – 17, 26 – 29 C Capital city 12 – 13 Catholic Church 132 – 133 Central Agency for Schools Abroad (ZfA) 134 – 137 Centre for International Peace Operations (ZIF) 42 – 45 Chemical industry 66 – 69 Children 122 – 125 Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Christian Social Union (CSU) 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Church tax 132 – 133 Cities 154 – 157, 158 – 159, 160 – 163 Citizenship law 118 – 121 Civil society 126 – 127 Climate 12 – 13 Climate protection 78 – 81, 82 – 83 Comprehensive school 112 – 113 Congress 160 – 163 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 70 – 71 Creative industry 138 – 139 Cuisine 170 – 171 Cultural preservation programme 140 – 141 Cultural relations and education policy 108 – 109, 140 – 141 Culture 134 – 137 Culture of remembrance 36 – 37 Currency 8 – 9 D Demography 10 – 11 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) 78 – 81 Deutsche Welle 146 – 149 Deutscher Filmpreis 142 – 145 Deutscher Kulturrat 134 – 137 Development cooperation 56 – 57 Digital Agenda 72 – 73 Diplomacy 38 – 41 Diplomatic missions 58 – 61 Direct investments 62 – 65 Domain 8 – 9 Dresden 6 – 7 Dual training 76 – 77 Düsseldorf 6 – 7 E Economy 58 – 61 Education 94 – 97 Elections 16 – 17 Electoral system 16 – 17 Electromobility 88 – 89 Electrotechnical and electronics industry 66 – 69 Élysée Treaty 46 – 49 Emigrants 10 – 11 Employment rate 76 – 77 Energy efficiency 84 – 87 Energy Reform 30 – 31, 78 – 81, 84 – 87 Environment 78 – 81 Environmental protection 78 – 81 Environmental technologies 88 – 89 Erfurt 6 – 7 EU Blue Card 118 – 121 European Union (EU) 46 – 49, 58 – 61, 62 – 65 Evangelical Church 132 – 133 Excellence Initiative 94 – 97 Export 58 – 61, 62 – 65 F Fall of the Berlin Wall 36 – 37 Family 122 – 125 Family allowance 122 – 125 Federal Armed Forces 38 – 41, 42 – 45 Federal Assembly 16 – 17 Federal Chancellor 16 – 19, 26 – 27 Federal Constitutional Court 26 – 29 Federal Council 14 – 15, 16 – 17 Federal Eagle 8 – 9 Federal Employment Agency 114 – 115 Federal Foreign Office 38 – 41 Federal Government 16 – 19, 26 – 29 Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media 134 – 137 Federal ministries 18 – 19 Federal Office for Migration and Refugees 114 – 115 Federal President 16 – 19, 26 – 29 Federal states 6 – 7 Federal Training Assistance Act (BAföG) 98 – 99 Federal Volunteer Service 114 – 115, 126 – 127
174 | 175 F A C T S A B O U T G E R M A N Y Federalism 6 – 7, 26 – 29 Federation of German Industries (BDI) 58 – 61 Free Democratic Party (FDP) 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Film academies 98 – 99 Flag 8 – 9 Football 164 – 167 Foreign economic policy 62 – 65 Foreign policy 38 – 57 Foreign trade 62 – 65 Foundations 38 – 41, 114 – 115, 126 – 127 Fraunhofer Institute 94 – 97, 102 – 105 Free trade agreement 62 – 65 Freedom of the press 146 – 149 G Gastronomy 170 – 171 Geography 12 – 13 Georg Büchner Preis 142 – 145 German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) 94 – 99, 106 – 109, 140 – 141 German Book Prize 142 – 145 German Chambers of Commerce Abroad (AHK) 58 – 61, 62 – 65 German Democratic Republic (GDR) 36 – 37 German Energy Agency 78 – 81 German Football Association (DFB) 154 – 157, 164 – 167 German Houses of Research and Innovation (DWIH) 108 – 109 German Islam Conference 114 – 115, 132 – 133 German language 152 – 153 German National Tourist Board (DZT) 154 – 157 German Olympic Sports Confeder- ation (DOSB) 154 – 157, 164 – 167 German Rectors’ Conference (HRK) 94 – 97, 98 – 99 German Research Foundation (DFG) 94 – 97, 102 – 105, 106 – 107 Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) 58 – 61, 62 – 65 Global player 66 – 69 Goethe-Institut (GI) 134 – 137, 140 – 141 Grammar school (Gymnasium) 112 – 113 Greentech 88 – 89 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 66 – 69 H Hamburg 6 – 7 Hanover 6 – 7 Helmholtz Association 94 – 97, 102 – 105, 106 – 107 Hessen 6 – 7 Hidden champions 66 – 69 Higher education institutions 98 – 99 Hightech strategy 94 – 97, 102 – 105 Hiking trails 160 – 163 Human rights 50 – 53 Humboldt Foundation 94 – 97, 98 – 99, 108 – 109 I Immigration 10 – 11, 30 – 31, 114 – 115, 118 – 121 Import 62 – 65 Inclusion 122 – 125 Industrial associations 22 – 25, 66 – 69 Industry 4.0 66 – 69, 72 – 73 Information and communications technology (ICT) 72 – 73 Infrastructure 58 – 61, 72 – 73 Inhabitants 10 – 11, 114 – 115 Innovation 58 – 61 Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations (ifa) 134 – 137, 140 – 141 Integration 118 – 121 Intermediate schools 112 – 113 Internet 146 – 149 Islam 132 – 133 J Judaism 132 – 133 K Kiel 6 – 7 Kulturstiftung des Bundes 134 – 137 L Labour market 58 – 61, 76 – 77 Legislation 26 – 29 Leibniz Association 94 – 97, 102 – 105 Leopoldina 94 – 97 Life expectancy 10 – 11, 114 – 115 Literature 142 – 145 Living 158 – 159 Long-distance cycle trails 160 – 163 Lower Saxony 6 – 7 M Maas, Heiko 14 – 15, 22 – 23, 38 – 41, 108 – 109 Magdeburg 6 – 7 Mainz 6 – 7 Master’s degrees 94 – 97 Max Planck Society (MPG) 94 – 97, 102 – 105 Mechanical and plant engineering 66 – 69 Mecklenburg-West Pomerania 6 – 7 Media 146 – 149 Member of Parliament 14 – 15 Merkel, Angela 14 – 19, 22 – 23 Migration 114 – 115, 118 – 121 Minimum wage 30 – 31, 76 – 77 Munich 6 – 7 Music academies 98 – 99 N National Action Plan for Integration 114 – 115 National anthem 8 – 9 National holiday 8 – 9 National parks 92 – 93 Nazism 36 – 37 New debt 30 – 31
U Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environment Agency) 78 – 81 Unemployed person 76 – 77 United Nations (UN) 42 – 45, 50 – 53 Universities 98 – 101 Universities of applied sciences 98 – 99 V Vocational training 76 – 77 Volunteering 126 – 127 W Way of life 154 – 157 Welfare state 114 – 115, 132 – 133 Wellness 160 – 163 Wiesbaden 6 – 7 Wind power 84 – 87 Wine 170 – 171 Wissenschaft Weltoffen report 106 – 107 World Heritage sites 160 – 163 Y Youth 122 – 125 Z Zugspitze 12 – 13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 42 – 45 North Rhine-Westphalia 6 – 7 Nuclear power 78 – 81, 84 – 87 Nutrition 154 – 157 Research 102 – 105 Research and development (R&D) 58 – 61, 66 – 69, 102 – 105 Rhine 12 – 13 Rhineland-Palatinate 6 – 7 Riesling 170 – 171 O Oktoberfest 160 – 163 Olympic Games 164 – 167 Organization for Security and Co- operation in Europe (OSCE) 42 – 45 P Parental leave 122 – 125 Parliament 14 – 17, 26 – 29 Partnerships 122 – 125 PASCH initiative 94 – 97, 152 – 153 Patents 66 – 69 Peacekeeping missions 42 – 45 Pension 30 – 31 Pluralism 114 – 115, 142 – 145 Political parties 14 – 15, 22 – 25, 32 – 33 Population 10 – 11 Potsdam 6 – 7 Preis der Leipziger Buchmesse 142 – 145 Press 146 – 149 Primary school 112 – 113 Public broadcasters 146 – 149 Q Quality of life 158 – 159 Quota for women 30 – 31, 76 – 77 R Radio 146 – 149 Reforms 22 – 25 Religion 132 – 133 Religious freedom 132 – 133 Renewable energies 84 – 87, 88 – 89 Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) 84 – 87 S Saarbrücken 6 – 7 Saarland 6 – 7 Saxony 6 – 7 Saxony-Anhalt 6 – 7 Schleswig-Holstein 6 – 7 School system 112 – 113 Schools abroad 112 – 113, 152 – 153 Schwerin 6 – 7 Science 94 – 97, 102 – 105 Secondary general school 112 – 113 Service economy 66 – 69 Single parent 122 – 125 Skilled workers 76 – 77 SMEs 58 – 61, 66 – 69 Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Social market economy 58 – 61 Solar power 84 – 87 Solidarity Pact 22 – 25 Sport 164 – 167 Sports promotion 164 – 167 Standard of living 154 – 157 Steinmeier, Frank-Walter 16 – 19, 26 – 29 Stuttgart 6 – 7 Sustainability 56 – 57, 70 – 71, 78 – 81 T Technical universities 98 – 99 Television 146 – 149 The Left party 14 – 15, 22 – 25 Theatre 142 – 145 Thuringia 6 – 7 Tourism 160 – 163 Trade fairs 62 – 65, 160 – 163 Trade unions 22 – 25
T R A V E L I N F O R M A T I O N GETTING AROUND IN GERMANY From visa to voltage: Useful information and important telephone numbers for travellers in Germany Passports and visas: Foreigners need a valid passport or passport replace- ment documents to enter Germany. A valid identity card is sufficient for nationals of most West European states. As a rule children require their own travel documents. Citizens of certain countries require a visa to enter Germany. German diplomatic missions (embassies and consulates) provide more information. → auswaertiges-amt.de By bus: Long-distance coaches are likewise a good way to travel around Germany. There are now more than 200 long-distance bus lines. Inter-city options are particularly numerous, with coaches serving every major Ger- man city. There are even stops for long-distance coaches in some towns with less than 10,000 inhabitants. For information on connections → busliniensuche.de → fernbusse.de By air: Germany is served by more than 100 international airlines. The global route network links 24 international airports in Germany with all regions of the world. The largest airports are in Frankfurt am Main, Munich and Düs- seldorf. All airports have good links to the respective transport network. → frankfurt-airport.de → munich-airport.de → dus.com By rail: Germany has an extensive rail network of a good 38,500 kilometres of track. Long-distance and local transport systems are well coordinated and offer good connections. Every day there are more than 250 direct connections from Germany to around 80 European cities. Deutsche Bahn AG hotline: Tel.: +49 18 06 99 66 33 → bahn.com By car: Germany has an ultra-modern road network. Over 700 service sta- tions, petrol stations, motels and snack stands are open around the clock on the approx. 13,000 kilometre-long motorway network. The following unleaded fuel types are available at petrol stations: Super (95 octane), Super E10 (95 octane), Super Plus (98 octane), and diesel. There is no speed limit on German motorways, unless speed limit signs dictate otherwise, but a general recommended speed of 130km/h is in place. In built-up areas the speed limit is 50km/h, and out- side such areas 100km/h. There are no motorway tolls. It is compulsory to wear seat belts and children under 150 cm in height must use child seats. Emergency or breakdown services can be requested using SOS telephones found along the motorways. The major automobile clubs (ADAC, AvD) provide information for car tourists. ADAC breakdown service Tel.: +49 18 02 22 22 22, → adac.de AvD emergency phone number Tel.: +49 80 09 90 99 09, → avd.de Accommodation: All categories of accommodation are available, from private rooms to holiday homes to luxury hotels. Standards are set and monitored also in the lower price classes. Tourism associations and tourist offices provide special accom- modation directories. → germany.travel Youth hostels: More than 500 youth hostels in Germany are open to mem- bers of every youth hostel association belonging to Hostelling International. An international membership card is available for a fee. German Youth Hostel Association Tel.: +49 52 31 74 01-0 → djh.de Money and currency: Legal tender is the Euro (1 Euro = 100 cents). Cash is available around the clock from cash machines using an EC card or international credit card; all major credit cards are accepted. Stated prices are inclusive of charges. Emergency phone numbers: Tel.: 110 for emergency services: police Tel.: 112 for emergency services: fire and ambulance services Time zone: The time zone in Germany is Central European Time (CET). The clocks go forward by one hour be- tween late March and late October (summer time). Electricity: The voltage is 230 volts.
Facts about Germany Everything you wish to know about Germany today can be found in “Facts about Germany”. How the political system works. Which guiding principles shape foreign policy. What characterises the economy. What key issues concern society. What is new in art and culture – and many more topics besides. Up to date, reliable, and compact, with numerous facts, figures, and diagrams, the practical handbook offers an extensive basic know- ledge of and insights into all areas of modern life in Germany. → facts-about-germany.de 9 783962 510329