The Federal Republic of Germany lies in the heart of Europe and is a cosmopolitan, democratic country with a great tradition and a lively present. Facts and figures at a glance.
Political system, Parliament & Parties
Germany is a federation. The federation and the 16 Länder (states) each have areas of responsibility of their own.
Biggest cities by inhabitants2>
Biggest cities by area2>
Cities with the most students 2>
Federal Eagle, Flag, Currency
The Federal Eagle is the German state symbol that is the richest in tradition. The Federal President, the Bundesrat, the Federal Constitutional Court, and the Bundestag use differently styled eagles. The eagles that appear on coins and the national strip of German sports associations also differ in terms of design.
The Basic Law states that the colours of the federal flag shall be black, red, and gold. In 1949, this followed on from the flag of the first German republic of 1919. The Nazis had abolished the latter and replaced it with the swastika.
The euro has been the legal tender in Germany since 1 January 2002. It replaced the deutschmark, which had been in use since 1948. The European Central Bank (ECB) is headquartered in the German financial centre Frankfurt am Main.
Passed in 1949 in Bonn, the Basic Law was initially intended to be provisional. After reunification in 1990 the version was then adopted as the permanent constitution. The 146 Articles of the Basic Law supersede all other German legal norms and define the basic systems and values of the state.
As the Day of German Unity, in the Unification Treaty of 1990 3 October was declared a national holiday in Germany. The Day of German Unity is the only national holiday to be determined by federal law.
The 16 Länder
The German national anthem consists only of the third stanza of the Deutschlandlied by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1841). The melody was written by Joseph Haydn in 1796-97.
Useful information and important telephone numbers for travellers in Germany.
Business, research and climate
Good ideas are drivers for the economy and science, but also for sustainability and environmental protection.
Living in Germany
Germany is a cosmopolitan country shaped by a pluralism of lifestyles.