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Germany at a glance

The Federal Republic of Germany lies in the heart of Europe and is a cosmopolitan, democratic country with a great tradition and a lively present. Facts and figures at a glance.

Elbphilharmonie Hamburg

Political system, Parliament & Parties

Germany is a federation. The federation and the 16 Länder (states) each have areas of responsibility of their own.

Federal Republic

 Germany is defined by federalism. Through the Bundesrat, the upper House, the Länder (states) participate in the legislative process.

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Parliament & Parties

The German Bundestag is elected every four years by free, secret, and direct ballot by citizens aged 18 and over who are eligible to vote.

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Christian Lindner, Olaf Scholz, Annalena Baerbock, Robert Habeck
Federal Government

The Federal Chancellor and the federal ministers form the Federal Government, the cabinet.

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Politisches System
Political system

The Federal Republic of Germany is structured as a federal state and parliamentary democracy.

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Deutschlandkarte (Städte)

Biggest cities by inhabitants

Inhabitants (Source: Destatis)
Berlin On city-berlin 3644826
Hamburg On city-hamburg 1841179
Munich On city-muenchen 1471508
Cologne Off city-koeln 1085664
Frankfurt/Main Off city-frankfurt 753056

Biggest cities by area (Source: Destatis)
Berlin On city-berlin 891
Hamburg On city-hamburg 755
Gardelegen Off city-gardelegen 632
Möckern Off city-moeckern 523
Zerbst/Anhalt Off city-zerbst 468

Cities with the most students

Students (Source: Studentenwerke)
Berlin On city-berlin 153576
Munich On city-muenchen 128076
Cologne Off city-koeln 87358
Frankfurt/Main Off city-frankfurt 78929
Hamburg On city-hamburg 72413

Federal Eagle, Flag, Currency

Nationalwappen Deutschland Bundesadler
Federal Eagle

The Federal Eagle is the German state symbol that is the richest in tradition. The Federal President, the Bundesrat, the Federal Constitutional Court, and the Bundestag use differently styled eagles. The eagles that appear on coins and the national strip of German sports associations also differ in terms of design.

Deutschland Flagge

The Basic Law states that the colours of the federal flag shall be black, red, and gold. In 1949, this followed on from the flag of the first German republic of 1919. The Nazis had abolished the latter and replaced it with the swastika.


The euro has been the legal tender in Germany since 1 January 2002. It replaced the deutschmark, which had been in use since 1948. The European Central Bank (ECB) is headquartered in the German financial centre Frankfurt am Main.

Basic Law

Passed in 1949 in Bonn, the Basic Law was initially intended to be provisional. After reunification in 1990 the version was then adopted as the permanent constitution. The 146 Articles of the Basic Law supersede all other German legal norms and define the basic systems and values of the state.

3. Oktober 1990
National Holiday

As the Day of German Unity, in the Unification Treaty of 1990 3 October was declared a national holiday in Germany. The Day of German Unity is the only national holiday to be determined by federal law.

The 16 Länder


National Anthem

Deutsche Nationalhymne

The German national anthem consists only of the third stanza of the Deutschlandlied by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben (1841). The melody was written by Joseph Haydn in 1796-97.

Listen to the German National Anthem


Useful facts

Useful information and important telephone numbers for travellers in Germany.

Geography & Climate

Germany lies at the heart of Europe. It shares its borders with nine other nations. No other European country has more neighbours.

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Flugzeug landet
© dpa
Getting around in Germany

From visa to voltage: Useful information and important telephone numbers for travellers in Germany.

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Geografie Deutschland

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Political fields of activity

Business, research and climate

Good ideas are drivers for the economy and science, but also for sustainability and environmental protection.

A Strong Hub

Germany is the world’s fourth-largest economy, highly innovative and has a strong focus on exports. The future lies in Industry 4.0.

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© Matthias Jung/laif
Vibrant Hub of Knowledge

Germany is well positioned as an academic hub. Research has a more international focus than ever before.

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Weltkugel in Händen
A Pioneer in Climate Policy

Internationally, Germany leads the way in climate protection and is a pioneer in the development of renewable energies.

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Living in Germany

Germany is a cosmopolitan country shaped by a pluralism of lifestyles.

Einwanderer, Auswanderer
Frankfurt am Main
Land of Diversity

Germany is certainly diverse. Exciting cities and great variety in countryside such as the North Sea coast and the Alps are a source of fascination.

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Ben Becker Theaterschauspieler
© picture alliance/Geisler-Fotopress
Vibrant Nation of Culture

Germany’s reputation as a great European cultural nation is based on famous names, its very vibrant art scene, and cosmopolitan diversity.

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Attractive School System

In Germany it is compulsory for all children to attend school. The Federal states are responsible for the school system.

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Familie am Strand
Enriching Diversity

Germany is defined by a pluralism of lifestyles. Demographic change is set to play a major role in the coming years.

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© dpa
Freedom of Religious Worship

Freedom of religion is enshrined in the German Basic Law, while the religious landscape is marked by increasing plurality.

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Strong Welfare State

A dense web of state insurances protects citizens against existential risks.

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