The Federal Republic of Germany is structured as a federal state and parliamentary democracy. The Basic Law stipulates that all government powers emanate from the people. The people assigns these powers to the parliaments (Bundestag and State parliaments) for the duration of a legislative period.
The authority of state is subdivided into legislative powers (the legislative), executive powers (the executive) and the powers responsible for the administration of justice (the judiciary).
In terms of protocol, the Federal President is Germany’s most senior representative. The President of the Bundestag is, in terms of protocol, the second most senior. The proxy for the Federal President is the President of the Bundesrat – an office held on an annual basis by the premier of the one of the federal states. The office with the greatest political power is that of the Federal Chancellor. The President of the Federal Constitutional Court is likewise one of the country’s high representatives.
At a glance
CDU, Federal Chancellor since November 2005
CDU, President of the Bundestag since 2017
SPD, Federal President since March 2017
President of the Federal Constitutional Court